Lake Como’s Bears, Wolves … and Werewolves

alps

Looking out from Brunate above Como to Monte Rosa and the high Alps on the Piedmont border with Switzerland – a rapid transition from urbanisation to remote isolation.

The lakeside cities of Como and Lecco are on the northern boundaries of Milan’s conurbation, with only the Alps constraining further spread.  In contrast, if you travel just a few kilometres from the shores of the lake, you find yourself in some of the most remote and mountainous areas of Europe –  an area favoured by wild animals including wolves and bears. 

wolf

The image of a wolf caught in 2015 by a remote camera placed in the Valle Albano.

Wolves and bears have been making a return to the Alps since the turn of the century after an absence of 100 years. Our area of the Alps is perhaps one of the last to see their return. Wolves were always present in the Apennines but they have recently been spreading up through Liguria and into Piedmont before moving east. Bears instead first re-established themselves in Trentino and the Alto Adige before spreading west. This can explain why recent sightings of wolves have been on the west side of the lake while bear sightings have been, up to now, restricted to the Lecco leg of the lake above its eastern shores.

Bear and wolf pic 2

Wolves

wolf2The first sighting of wolves was made in 2012 when two adults were seen in the Parco Ticino to the west of Malpensa airport.  In 2015 a pack of five wolves was identified living in the Valle Albano close to Garzeno which is an area 10 kilometres south west from Gravedona at the top end of the lake’s western shores. It is fascinating to note that such a wild animal could have become established so close to one of the most popular areas for visitors on the lake. Since 2015, this pack may well have multiplied by up to four times.

Parco Valle Albano

The Valle Albano is known to host large numbers of deer and other wild animals providing ample prey for wolves.

It is estimated that there may well be between one thousand to one thousand five hundred wolves living nowadays in the Apennines while there are still only a few hundred in the Italian Alps. Numbers and details of wolves in all Alpine countries are recorded by Life Wolfalps EU, an organisation committed to ‘coordinated actions to improve wolf-human coexistence‘.  The return of wolves to the Alps has not been without problems given that they had previously been hunted to extinction by farmers seeking to protect their herds of sheep and goats grazing on the Alpine pastures.

deer at Garzeno

Wolves grab their prey by their throat and use the pressure of their jaws to complete the kill quickly and efficiently.

A wolf’s diet is almost exclusively carnivorous consuming from three to six kilos of meat per day. This amounts to an average of twenty deer in a year. The Valle Albano is particularly rich in wild deer and is within a territory that provides the wolves access to over 200 square kilometres in which to hunt their prey, extending over the Swiss border.  Their other favoured prey are wild boar who, prior to the return of the wolves, met with no natural predators. Wild boar numbers have increased exponentially in recent years and so the return of the wolves does something to restore the ecological balance.

cavargna goats

Goat herders are at the forefront of the conflict between farmers and wolves with the fear of losing members of their herds as they graze on the high alpine pastures.

However, for those farmers managing their flocks of sheep and goats on the high alpine pastures, the return of the wolves is more problematic. Firstly wolves have a fearful reputation and stories abound of wolves attacking babies and children. This may have been more likely in the past when children and babies would accompany their parents to live and work in the high alpine pastures. Wolves will always out of preference hunt the weak or the slow but there are no recent reports of any attacks on humans.  Secondly there is the fear that in the cold winter months, the wolves might descend from the mountains in search of food as do the wild boar. Again there are no proven reports yet of domestic animals being attacked in the Valle Albano. This may be down to the still plentiful supply of wild deer and also to the suggestion that it is only lone wolves who attack domestic animals. The same is not the case in the Val Cavargna.

cavargna1

The Val Cavargna

The Val Cavargna lies around ten kilometres due north of Porlezza, a town on the eastern end of Lake Lugano. In August 2017 reports came in of thirty goats killed by wolves. In August 2020 there was a further report of ten goats killed out of a flock of sixty left to pasture on the Alpe Stabiello at 1,702 metres above sea level. The wolves were apparently able to separate out this group of ten from the main flock and drive them into the woods where they were killed. This follows on from a further twenty goats killed earlier in the year. The same pack of wolves may also have been responsible for another twenty attacks on ten alpine farms across the nearby Swiss border. It is relatively easy to identify a wolf attack since they usually apply the same method to kill their prey by locking their jaws around the throat of their victims applying up to 100 kilograms per square centimetre of pressure to strangle and sever the carotid artery.

wolf demo

Ecologists welcome the return of wolves to the Alps but some local farmers are less enthusiastic as in the case of these demonstrators in Ossola above Lake Maggiore .

There is a complex psychological relationship between man and wolf as revealed in fables like Red Riding Hood with its contrast between animal cunning and childhood innocence. Stories of the big bad wolf abound as is the case of a particularly large and savage wolf that was said to live in a lair guarding the route between Brunate and Torno. The Sasso del Lupo (the wolf’s stone) is a large granite boulder brought down from the Valtellina by glaciation and left, as the ice retreated, to almost block the route of the ancient Strada Regia to the south of Monte Piatto. The local myth goes that the wolf used this massive granite ‘erratico’ as its lair from which it would jump out at any passing children who had been particularly disobedient or badly behaved – a terrifying prospect if you had to make regular use of this mountain path. 

Sasso del lupo

The Sasso del Lupo is on the section of the Strada Regia between Brunate and Monte Piatto. It is a granite boulder brought down by glacier from the Val Masino in the Valtellina, 20 metres long by 10 wide and 8 high.

Bears

bear

The Brown Bear (Ursus Arctos) is making a successful return to the Alps, particularly in the Trentino area which is where those bears seen around Lake Como originate from.

Bear sightings are restricted to the eastern side of the lake in locations that run alongside the Viandante, the 45 kilometre long hiking trail that starts to the the north of Lecco and extends north to Colico. In May 2012 evidence of bears were seen in Somana, an area to the east of Mandello del Lario, where a deer and two sheep had been killed with  a further two injured.  Bear tracks had been found nearby. At the same time two bears were seen in the area above Colico. In April 2013 the same bear seen close to Mandello was again seen in the Valsassina and identified as a four year old known by trackers as M7 and known to have originated from a pack living in Trentino. It was seen raiding a bee hive and eating bees and honey. The apiarist was compensated for his loss and farmers in the area advised to bring all their animals in overnight. Bear sightings were recorded in the same area in 2015 and again in 2017. This bear hotspot is above Dervio between the hamlets of Premana and Primaluna. 

valsassina

The Valsassina running east from Dervio on Lake Como is the area with most bear sightings.

Bears may well present a frightening spectacle when rearing up on their hind legs but there have been no cases of these brown bears inflicting injuries on humans in over 150 years. A bear on its hind legs is only trying to get a better view of what might be threatening it and, once it has identified the threat, will almost invariably retreat. Bears are a protected species like wolves and their numbers and welfare are monitored by an organisation called Life Arctos

…and Werewolves?

werewolf in Milan

A Werewolf in Milan

The myth of the man wolf or werewolf is almost universal.  Film and fiction have acquainted us with its features with the apparent influence of the full moon causing this shapeshifting phenomenon. The recent discovery on January 29th of naked large footprints crossing the snow-covered roofs of up to six houses in the remote village of Buggiolo was reported in La Provincia (the local paper) as being possibly made by a ‘lupo mannaro’  (werewolf).  Strange noises in the starlit night of a full moon with evidence in the morning of these footprints and of pieces of wood thrown down from the rooftops led one local resident, Piermario Cremella, to comment as follows:

‘I was told of the episode by some of my neighbours so I went to take a look expecting to find a logical cause but when I climbed up to the edge of my roof I had to reconsider. I saw these footprints in the snow crossing the roof. They were not made by shoes and on the balcony below, also covered in snow, there were these pieces of wood thrown down from above. I can’t think of a logical explanation and amongst us we began to think the unthinkable.’

Buggiolo, with its tiny population of 160,  is in the Val Rezzo, the valley that runs parallel to the Val Cavargna where so many actual wolves have been recorded.

Clearly the remoteness and isolation of our nearby alpine communities does not just favour the return of iconic wild animals like wolves and bears but also the residual belief in some of our ancient myths and fables. 

Posted in Folklore, Places of interest, Uncategorized, Walks | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Escape to Switzerland via Monte Bisbino

The Sanctuary on the summit of Monte Bisbino, one of the routes favoured by refugees seeking to cross the border into Switzerland.

To honour Holocaust Memorial Day I would like this year to recount the experience of Anna Sacerdoti, born 1925, who successfully managed to avoid deportation to Hitler’s death camps by escaping over the border from Cernobbio with her family.

Smuggling’s game of cat and mouse between ‘contrabandisti’ and border guards formed a key part of our local economy up until the 1970’s. However, during the war both these players would often cooperate in helping enemies of the fascist state escape over the border to avoid deportation to Hitler’s death camps. Anna Sacerdoti, a young girl from a Jewish family,  made that escape with her family in 1943. Her account of her experience provides insight into how life changed from 1938 with the passing of the anti-Semitic Race Laws until 1943 when Mussolini’s Repubblica di Salò defined all Jews as ‘enemies of the state’ at the Congress of Verona.  

The Rifugio Bugone above Moltrasio was one of the chain of barracks for border guards set up to deter smuggling. Many guards helped refugees cross the border using their knowledge of the mountain to outsmart the Nazi soldiers or the fascist Brigate Nere. Mussolini eventually barred the border guards from operating on the mountains due to their untrustworthiness.

Anna Sacerdoti was born into a family with one elder brother, a mother who kept house and a father with a textiles shop and tailor’s studio in the Porta Venezia area of Milan.  She and her family survived the war to later become a politician, a renowned astronomer and the joint owner with her husband of Como’s largest independent bookshop in Via Mentana. She recounted her wartime experiences in an interview recorded by Como’s Istituto di Storia Contemporanea (ISC) and available in Italian online. The details in this article are taken from that interview with the ISC.

Background

Headline announcing the passing of the anti-Semitic Race Laws of 1938.

Throughout the 1930s Jewish families from Germany had emigrated to Italy in the belief that they would be safer here. The fascist government had showed its capacity for racism in its deplorable conduct of the war in Ethiopia but there had been no recent history of anti-semitism. However, possibly under pressure from Hitler or as part of the evolution of his own racist thinking, Mussolini changed this when he published the ‘Leggi Razziali’ in 1938.  This convergence of Italian fascism with German Nazism came to be codified in the ‘Patto D’Acciaio’ (Pact of Steel) Treaty of 1939, sealing the fate of the Italian economy and the sacrifice of up to 70,000 of its own citizens to murder in Nazi death camps. 

The main clauses in the Racial Laws were the following:

  • Jews could not marry ‘aryian’ Italians.
  • Jews were forbidden from employing ‘aryians’ as domestic workers.
  • No Jews could be employed in public administration, banks or any company offering public services.
  • Foreign Jews could no longer enter the country.
  • All foreign Jews had their Italian citizenship revoked if granted at any time after 1919.
  • No Jew could be employed as a lawyer or journalist.
  • No Jewish children could attend state schools unless they converted to Catholicism.
  • No books published by Jews could be used in state schools.
  • Special schools for Jewish pupils were created in which only Jewish teachers could work. Jewish teachers were banned from working in state schools.

The fascist regime fell in 1943 with the signing of an armistice with the allies on September 8th. The racial laws were revoked. All political prisoners. allied prisoners of war and Jews then in detention were freed. However, the period of freedom was short lived since it was quickly followed by the Nazi occupation of Northern Italy.  

On the Nazi’s reinstatement of Mussolini in 1943, the so-called Republic of Salò passed  Article 7 of the Congress of Verona. This article defined all Jews living in Italy as ‘enemies of the state’ and it applied equally to all residents whether they be foreign refugees or those with Italian citizenship. Enemies of the state – which also included political opponents and ex-soldiers or others avoiding military service –  risked arrest, onward deportation and death in Nazi extermination camps. Most Jews from Italy were transferred to Auschwitz where 7,680 died leaving only 1,000 able to return home. 10,000 political prisoners and between 40 to 50 thousand ex-soldiers suffered a similar fate.

The Sacerdoti Family

The district of Casnedo within Cernobbio where the Sacerdoti family moved to avoid the allied bombardment of Milan and to be close to the Swiss border if they needed to make a quick escape.

Prior to 1938, Anna’s family were living in Milan. Her father, Renato – an avowed antifascist who kept his home free of any fascist influence – ran a textiles shop importing mainly English cloth  and a tailoring studio in the Porto Venezia area. It was not a religious family and so they did not insist that Anna or her brother were not to attend the daily prayers at the start of the school day. Anna recounts how they stood up with all the other children ‘out of respect’ but didn’t have to participate. She was not aware at that time of any anti-Semitism.

Her father though had sensed the way fascism was going and the increasing likelihood of war. He took the family on the long summer holiday to Cernobbio where he also  cultivated friendships with the local smugglers and the border guards. 

Schooling

Mussolini and fascist leaders at a young person’s rally in Milan’s Arena

The start of the school year in October 1938  was heralded by Mussolini’s customary attendance of a grand gymnastic display by school children in Milan’s Arena. Anna was a skilled gymnast and was taking part in rehearsals when her teacher tearfully had to inform her and two other companions that they could no longer  take part. Anna, at twelve years old, began at this point to understand the impact of fascism. 

During that summer in Cernobbio she had been taking extra lessons in German from a Jewish Russian refugee. She needed German as a condition of entry into the Scientific Lyceum – her preferred choice for secondary schooling. But the racial laws meant she was denied access to that or any other Italian school. She and her brother enrolled into the British Institute, unimpacted by the racial laws since it was linked to the British Embassy, but they did not get on with instruction in English. From then on Anna received no formal education until she went back to complete matriculation after the war, sitting as an adult in the 5th year class in the Liceo Scientifico ‘Paolo Giovio’ in Como.

Move to Cernobbio

Anna’s father’s textile shop and studio had been seized from him and he was forced into earning money from a variety of informal jobs. In any case, with the increasing overt racism of the state and the start of the allied bombardment of Milan in 1939, he decided to move the family to safer ground. In 1940 they made a permanent move to the district of Casnedo in Cernobbio, where Renato had already established good relationships. Como and Cernobbio were spared allied bombardment and they were in easy reach of the Swiss border if ever there came the need to make a hasty escape. 

Sign in a shopfront in Milan ‘discouraging’ Jewish customers.

A still taken from Roberto Benigni’s film ‘La Vita e Bella’ in which he parodied these exclusion notices with the fantasy that on certain days it was the turn of Visigoths and spiders to be denied entry.

The next blow to the family came when they were forced to sack their household help of many years – a girl originally from Friuli called Maria. Both Maria, Anna and the rest of the family were devastated by this. Anna had grown up with Maria and thought of her as a second mother. Maria had become part of their household and it was difficult for Renato to find another family who would employ her on similar terms and conditions. For Anna, it was just another example of how everyone, not just Jews, suffered as a result of the Racial Laws.

Armistice Day, September 8th 1943

The fall of the fascist government with the arrest and imprisonment of Mussolini brought widespread relief and the freeing of all allied soldiers from prison camps. Most of these allied soldiers then did their best to reach home with many coming up to cross over the border into Switzerland.  In the meantime, those Italian soldiers in Italy were quick to divest themselves of their uniforms and return to civilian life. Anna’s father helped some of the border guards posted on Monte Bisbino by giving them civilian clothes in exchange for their military uniforms. His fine instinct for survival had calculated that these uniforms might prove useful in the future.

The initial euphoria following the fall of fascism was soon cut short when the Nazis occupied the central and northern part of the country. They made a daring raid to snatch Mussolini from captivity and then reinstated him as leader of a puppet state nicknamed the Republic of Salò. The Republic of Salò lost no time in carrying out the nazifascist policy of mass extermination. 1943 saw the first train loads of Jews leave Milan’s Central Station destined for Auschwitz. The Shoah had reached Italy. 

From December 1943 to January 1945, 23 trains left Platform 21 of Milan’s Central Station containing mainly Jews but also partisans and political dissidents with Auschitz as their direct destination. The platform is now a memorial to the Holocaust.

Crossing over to Switzerland

Switzerland’s policy towards refugees during the war was complex with access being allowed and then denied whenever the individual cantons felt they lacked the resources to manage the numbers. Most refugees were interned and none were allowed to work. Initially the one group allowed access were soldiers. Following the Nazi occupation, there were many ex-soldiers who resisted being conscripted into the Republic of Salo’s army. Some of them formed the first bands of partisan antifascists. Others sought refuge in Switzerland. At that time the Swiss Canton of Ticino was only allowing ex-military to cross over the border with Italy. Anna’s father used the uniforms he had exchanged with the Border Guards to help Anna’s brother and his companions to pose as military and so pass safely over the border at Chiasso.

Renato then had to get the rest of his family to safety ever aware of the roundups of Jews by the German army and their Italian allies, the fascist Brigate Nere. Many of the local people were doing their best to safeguard their Jewish neighbours as we have recounted in previous articles and Renato was able to call upon the help of the smugglers he had befriended in Cernobbio. 

The Sacerdoti family then made their first attempt to cross the border on Monte Bisbino with the help of the smugglers who led their party to where they had cut a hole in the border fencing. The family crossed over safely but, as they descended towards Breggia, they were intercepted by Swiss border guards who refused them further entry and forced them to return into Italy. If they had returned via the official border they would all have been immediately detained and face immediate detention and eventual deportation. However they were allowed to return to the very gap in the border fence through which they had entered and so return home.

Their second attempt was made on December 19th 1943 once Renato had made a deal with the Italian border guards manning a pedestrian crossing into Switzerland at Rongiana on a footpath from Piazza Santo Stefano, a district of Cernobbio next to the family’s home in Casnedo. The guards, part of the Guardia di Finanza, had agreed to open the gates to the family in exchange for their bicycles. This time they were not turned back by the Swiss who however did separate the family, as was their custom with refugees, by interning Anna and her mother in the local cinema and her father within the sports ground. 

The view over Switzerland from Monte Bisbino. The ridge in the foreground marks the border.

The Family Whistle

Anna’s mother soon understood that the Swiss were only going to allow those refugees who had crossed over more than twenty four hours previously to stay on. The more recent arrivals, namely Anna and her family, would be sent back into Italy. She decided that they would tell the Swiss authorities they had in fact crossed earlier from Monte Bisbino but had spent the night on the mountain since it was dark. The story would hold up only if they could get a message to Anna’s father for him to corroborate it. Anna’s mother persuaded a sympathetic guard to convey her message to the sports ground where her father was being held. The problem was how would this guard be able to identify Signor Sacerdoti from the hundreds of other detainees being held there. 

Through these years of anxiety, the family had devised a means of identifying themselves to each other as for example whenever approaching the house in Casnedo. This was by whistling a specific tune known to all of them. Anna’s mother taught the Swiss guard the tune and he duly walked around the sports ground whistling this Sacerdoti tune. On hearing it, Renato approached the guard and was passed the all-important message which ensured the family would be briefly reunited and transported together to another camp in Bellinzona.

Return to Italy

Photo by Christian Schiefer taken at Ponte Chiasso showing disarmed German soldiers waiting to cross the border into Switzerland, April 1945.

Those refugees who had successfully gained permission to stay in Switzerland were interned in separate camps for men and women during the remainder of the war. This did not stop Anna joining the Communist Party which was as clandestine in Switzerland as it was in Italy. She spent most of her time in internment except for one period when she was allowed to work as a housemaid for a wealthy Swiis-Italian family who unfortunately would lock her in her room every weekend when they left for their second home. Anna decided that internment was preferable and waited her time until she got news of the allied advance beyond the Po and the liberation of Bologna.  She made her way to Chiasso and arrived there on the 23rd April 1945 when the roads were full of German soldiers retreating from Italy. Mussolini was about to embark on his last flight out of Italy within a column of German troops making its way up the western shores of Lake Como.  

Christian Schiefer took a number of photos during the last days of the war including those of Mussolini and Clara Petacci’s corpses displayed in Piazzale Loreto, Milan. Here we see German soldiers having crossed over into Switzerland at the Chiasso border post.

This time she was initially refused entry into Italy by the authorities who had closed the borders fearing the clandestine return of  fascists seeking to disguise themselves within the flocks of returning refugees. However a border guard heard her give her name as Sacerdoti, and, thinking that she was the daughter of a family he knew, he allowed her to pass.

The army barracks – Caserma De Cristoforis – in Como. Citizens had rushed to the barracks in September 1943 to arm themselves after the initial fall of fascism. Anna went immediately to these barracks on her return to Como in 1945 to enlist in the Committee of National Liberation whose task was to guide the region in those first days of peace.

Como was in a complete state of chaos in those days leading up to the capture and execution of Mussolini. There were still some German soldiers and plenty of fascists in the area. Anna went immediately to the Caserma De Cristoforis and through her party membership she registered as a member of the CLN (Committee for National Liberation) – the organisation that had coordinated resistance and, following liberation, provided the immediate civil order and administration. Her and Italy’s war was over and she and her family had survived through a fortunate combination of far-sightedness, ingenuity, help and good fortune. 

Aftermath

Anna formed an astronomical society which has an observatory on Monte Calbiga above Lenno.

On returning to Como, Anna continued her career in local politics maintaining her commitment to socialism, antifascism and the promotion of peace and culture. She established a number of cultural associations including the astronomical society, the Gruppo Astrofili Lariani with their observatory on Monte Calbiga. In 1962, alongside her husband she opened the most important independent bookshop in Como, the Libreria Mentana, which she ran until 1987. On retiring from the bookshop Anna decided to complete the secondary education that had been so brutally denied her under Mussolini’s Racial Laws back in 1938. She sat alongside those much younger than her to complete her matriculation at the Liceo Scientifico Paolo Giovio in Como.  She was then able to enrol in the University Science Faculty to further her interest in astronomy.

The interior of the Libreria Mentana set up by Anna in 1962 and managed by her until her retirement in 1987. The shop eventually closed in 2019.

Her long and fulfilling life came to an end in August 2015. Just this one single example of her achievements in peacetime, made possible by that escape over the border in Cernobbio, goes to illustrate how much human potential was sacrificed in the criminal slaughter of the millions of victims of the Shoah. 

Further Reading

Our article Como’s ‘Viaggi della Salvezza’ – In Memory of the Holocaust describes how the Border Guards (Guardia di Finanza) based in Moltrasio helped refugees to escape across the border to safety in Switzerland.  

Our article  Heroism and Disaster in the Vallassina – Holocaust Memorial Day, January 27th describes how local priests also helped refugees. 

The world of the smugglers around Como is described in Como and Contraband – A Romanticised Legacy?  Even the fascist puppet state took to smuggling in an attempt to gain some financial independence form the Nazi masters. This is described in Como’s Lake Montorfano: Commandos, Contraband and the CIA.

 

Other articles commemorating Holocaust Memorial Day are:

Como Remembers the Holocaust

Testimonies and Remembrance: Como Recalls the Shoah

Posted in crime, History, People, Politics, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Shadow of the Mafia over Como

Lario Connection

The logo of the Progetto San Francesco, part of the Centro Studi Sociali Contro Le Mafie, uses the metaphor of an octopus appropriately to suggest the many ways in which the mafia insinuate themselves within the fabric of society. The gun is less relevant for the new variant of financial crime infecting our area, but it still sits within their armoury.

Organised crime is like a virus whose bacteria spread across society breaking out from time to time in various hotspots, mutating along the way to evade the best efforts of law enforcers. The mafia have learnt to avoid attracting attention through their past acts of violence and intimidation. Instead their disease is more likely to attract attention these days once hotspots become self-evident or new variants are uncovered. Such is the case here in Como following the declared bankruptcy and closure of one of the most popular local restaurants – Pane e Tulipani, in the heart of the old city in Via Lambertenghi.  Links soon appeared between this bankruptcy and the arrest of 34 people in the Province of Como and Calabria in an anti-mafia investigation codenamed ‘Nuovo Mondo’. 

Pane e Tulipani

The now vacant site of ‘Pane e Tulipani’, formally one of the most popular and fashionable of Como’s restaurants in the old town.

Although the quality of the food and service had deteriorated of late at Pane e Tulipani, it still came as a surprise when the restaurant declared itself bankrupt on the 18th October 2018. Suspicions that all was not as it should be were confirmed four days later when the Guardia di Finanza intercepted a couple of Tunisians in a car close to the restaurant without a permit to enter the old city. In full view on the passenger seat of their car was a box containing financial documents belonging to the restaurant.  The Tunisians had been instructed by the restaurant’s accountant, Alberto Caremi,  to pick up and destroy incriminating financial documents relevant to the restaurant’s bankruptcy. What these documents and subsequent  illegal attempts to sell off company assets revealed was a clear case of fraudulent bankruptcy.  Company partners and accountants for Pane e Tulipani were immediately arrested. 

Guardia di Finanza

The Guardia di Finanza (financial police) led the inquiries into the bankruptcy of Pane e Tulipani and the other companies registered in the Province of Como and the Calabrian city of Gioia Tauro which were deliberately forced into bankruptcy.

Pane e Tulipani – The Scam

Subsequent investigations revealed an elaborate scam to cheat the tax authorities and make money out of a fraudulent bankruptcy. The scam worked by creating two companies linked to each other with one, Pane e Tulipani itself, responsible for running the restaurant and for all associated costs, and the other, Napo Srl, which took out a mortgage to purchase the restaurant’s premises. Although both companies were owned by exactly the same partners, Napo set out to bleed Pane e Tulipani dry by charging it €13,000 a month for rent.  This left the restaurant unable to pay its tax bills leading eventually, inevitably and deliberately to bankruptcy. The partners then hoped to conclude the scam by selling the property in 2019 thus paying off the mortgage, freeing them of the guarantees provided to cover that mortgage and leaving them with a good profit from the sale unhindered, due to bankruptcy, of having to pay the creditors of the restaurant including the tax authorities. 

ACSM AGAM

Acsm Agam is a utilities company part owned by the Comunes of Como, Varese, Sondrio and Monza

The mastermind and chief architect of this scam was Paolo Lanzara, a 51 year old accountant from Como who also happened to be on the board of the utilities company Acsm Agam, representing the interests of the Comune di Como as part owners who had sponsored that appointment. (His association with Acsm Agam resulted in further embarrassment to the current mayor of Como, Mario Landriscina, when it was revealed that Lanzara had failed to mention his previous arrest in 2018 when the mayor first sponsored his appointment.) 

Also involved in the scam was another Como financial professional, Bruno De Benedetto – a person behind a host of businesses in and around Como either as a partner, financial advisor or the real power behind a series of figurehead directors. De Benedetto had been working with Lanzara in attempting illegally to sell off the bankrupt company’s assets and also to purchase the physical premises of the restaurant. 

Bruno De Benedetto – Villain and Victim?

Bruno De Benedetto is no saint. He was the ‘trusted’ financial advisor to Massimiliano Ficarra, an accountant with residence in Gioia Tauro in Calabria but domiciled in Lomazzo in the Province of Como. Ficarra is a mafioso – a member of the Cosca Piromalli, one of the largest of Calabria’s ‘ndrangheta clans operating not just there but in Lombardy and other European cities. Ficarra is at the heart of the Nuovo Mondo investigation and is now facing a 12 year prison sentence. 

Villa Olmo Restaurant

The restaurant on the lakefront in Villa Olmo’s gardens, owned by the Comune di Como who grant license for its management following public auction.

De Benedetto’s personal stake in restaurants in and around Como is extensive and tumultuous. In addition to the illegalities associated with the failure of ‘Pane e Tulipani’ he is also accused of falsely applying to manage the Lido in Villa Olmo with its bar and the adjoining restaurant. His company, Villa Olmo Lago,  had previously run the restaurant attached to the lido for the previous ten years but in 2019 it was forced into bankruptcy left owing €500,000 in unpaid taxes.

Villa Olmo Lido and Bar

The bar and lido in the gardens of Villa Olmo now managed by a company granted license by the owners, the Comune di Como following public auction. The current managers are not associated with Bruno De Benedetto or implicated in any way in the Nuovo Mondo investigation.

The Comune di Como own a number of businesses around the city which they license others to manage in response to public competition. In recent years it would appear that many of these license competitions have not run smoothly, for example the lido in Viale Geno has remained closed now for two years since all applicants so far have failed to meet the competition’s criteria. When the Comune published the competition for licenses to run the Lido in Villa Olmo and the adjoining  restaurant, De Benedetto applied either directly or through frontmen. However, as a result of the Nuovo Mondo investigation and the previous bankruptcy of  De Benedetto’s Villa Olmo Lago – his company that had previously managed the restaurant for 10 years –  it became clear that De Benedetto’s new application to manage both restaurant and lido was illegal. It is an offence to participate in a  competition for public contracts if you lack the relevant means, skill or experience – a measure no doubt put into law to avoid cronyism. De Benedetto was held in Como’s prison, Bassone, on these additional charges of ‘turbativa d’asta’ in addition to the charges relating to the forced bankruptcy of ‘Pane e Tulipani’.

Lido Viale Geno

Recent competitions for licenses to manage some of the Comune di Como’s properties have been fraught with difficulties and delays with the lido on Viale Geno remaining closed for the last two tourist seasons resulting in loss of revenue to the Comune and loss of facilities to residents and visitors alike.

De Benedetto’s companies do not like paying taxes. Even his boutique hotel ‘The Avenue’ in Piazzolo Terragni was accused at the start of the year of not handing over €40,000 due to the Comune and representing the city tax levied on all hotel guests. This represents a non payment over a four year period which it appears the Comune themselves never took active steps to recover. That lack of concern and other possible irregularities are now being looked at more closely prior to the case coming to court later this Spring.

Avenue Hotel

The Avenue Hotel in Piazzolo Terragni, accused of allegedly not handing over the city tax charged on all overnight guests.

Usury

Faced with the ever increasing number of charges against him with the revelations of his connections to organised crime, De Benedetto has decided to present himself as a victim. He has denounced three local financial professionals with usury claiming he borrowed a total of €1 million to cover his debts to tax authorities for which he had to pay back €1.6 million. The annual rate of interest on these loans ranged from 80 to 600%, far exceeding the legal limit of 21% beyond which a loan is deemed as usurious. Two of the accused – Gabro Panfili, 74 years old and resident in a lakeside villa in Laglio and Paolo Barrasso, 59 years old and resident in Como –  have previous convictions for usury and so have been imprisoned awaiting trial. The third, Giovanni Gregorio, 82 years old and resident in Bellagio, is under house arrest. De Benedetto is also claiming that Gregorio issued his loans under the condition that De Benedetto put a Nigerian woman on the books of those employed at the Avenue Hotel, so that she would then be able to obtain a residency permit. Her wages of around €54,000 a year would then be paid directly to Gregorio. We do not know if the woman was asked to pay Gregorio for this favour. 

Organised Crime

Gioia Tauro

The mafia activities in the Province of Como revealed in the Nuovo Mondo investigation are linked to companies and people from Gioia Tauro in Calabria, the site of Italy’s largest container port. This is also the base of the Piromalli ‘ndrangheta clan.

We now move our focus away from Como  further south to the comunes of Lomazzo, Fino Mornasco, Cermenate and Cantù where links between local businesses and the ‘ndrangheta have been known to exist for some time. They have been charged for drug trafficking and the corruption of local officials in order to obtain favourable contracts – as well as the gradual infiltration into some specific industrial sectors such as building and waste management.  The extent of their influence can be gauged by the daytime execution in 2008 of Franco Mancuso in a bar in Cadorago in front of witnesses who remained silent. Mancuso had publicly ‘dissed’ Bartolomeo Iaconis of Fino Mornasco – the local ‘ndrangheta boss attached to the Piromalli family. That killing was intended to underline the message that the area around Lomazzo was mafia territory.

Antimafia Demonstration

Young people express their revulsion of organised crime at an antimafia demonstration in Como

The ‘ndrangheta have always favoured establishing themselves in the smaller towns around the Milanese hinterland where it is relatively easier to corrupt local public administrations, as in the case of Lomazzo. Here Marino Carugati, 77 years old, was mayor in 1987 and was subsequently linked to the ‘ndrangheta. Carugati’s colourful past includes having to call upon the help of national politicians in 2008 to get him out of solitary confinement in Eritrea where he had been imprisoned under the accusation  of supplying faulty wood working machinery to his Eritrean partner. More recently in October 2019 he and 33 others in and around Lomazzo and in Calabria were arrested as a result of the lengthy ‘Nuovo Mondo’ investigation.

Nuovo Mondo – the ‘New World’

Nuovo MondoWhy a new world – because, thanks to the two major architects of a new scam operating since 2010, the mafia had developed a novel form of white collar financial crime which allowed them to stay back in the shadows. No guns or intimidation were needed, just wily accountants and an army of dupes prepared to act as figureheads for bogus companies. The major, but not the only victim of this crime, was the state due to lost tax revenue. The major beneficiary was the ‘ndrangheta who could use the false companies to launder money from their other illicit activities and redirect their untaxed profits into further infiltration and corruption of local business and public administration. 

The two architects of the scheme were Massimiliano Ficarra, an accountant resident in Gioia Tauro in Calabria and Lomazzo and a banker from Milan, Cesare Pravisano also resident in Lomazzo. Their scheme was similar to that of Pane e Tulipani in that it played on the relationship between two separate legal entities, namely a cooperative of industrial workers and a consortium.  As with Pane e Tulipani, the scam works by pairing an ‘active’ company with a ‘passive’ one in which the active entity undertakes the physical activity and incurs all related costs. It is then deliberately set on a course to bankruptcy. Meanwhile the ‘passive’ partner  retains a semblance of legality while profiting from extracting all value from its ‘active’ member to which it appears to be entirely independent. The relationships are complex but this is how I have best been able to understand how it worked. The consortium, on gaining a public or private contract, would sub-contract the work to the cooperative. 

  1. The work cooperatives were headed up by figureheads but were actually controlled by the consortia who remained separate legal entities. 
  2. The cooperatives took advantage of their legal status to delay payment of taxes and insurance contributions for their workers who should in any case have been treated as partners.
  3. The cooperatives provided the workforce and other services under subcontract to the consortia who could then expense these charges for services which consisted mainly of manpower and included the percentage for VAT which the cooperatives should then have passed on to the state.
  4. The consortia avoided any direct employment of workers and so had no liability for insurance contributions. 
  5. The profits of the consortia were reduced on paper by the cooperatives issuing false invoices whose payment went directly to the fraud originators. 
  6. The cooperatives deliberately failed to make the necessary tax returns or the due payments of VAT and so, claiming they were unable to do so, declared themselves bankrupt. Bankruptcy would typically follow after two years of operation. 
  7. The fraudsters then created a new cooperative with exactly the same partners and employees of those made deliberately bankrupt. Employees of these cooperatives would remain entirely ignorant of the fact that they were now working for a new legal entity. 
  8. The consortia would remain entirely within the law with the correct payment of taxes but on profits massively reduced by the false invoices issued by the now defunct cooperative. 

From 2010 until 2019  it is alleged that 40 cooperatives had been set up with the deliberate purpose of driving them into bankruptcy. 34 people were arrested for involvement in this scam including the two main architects, the figureheads for the cooperatives and the related consortia and others such as Bruno de Benedetto for his attempt to derail the contracts for the management of the lido and restaurant in Como’s Villa Olmo.

The charges brought against them were for:

  1. Causing deliberate bankruptcy
  2. Issuing false company accounts
  3. Issuing fake invoices
  4. Disrupting public contracts.

A Victimless Crime?

Certainly white collar crime does not result directly in victims like Franco Mancuso in 2008 at Carugo but the impact goes way beyond losses to the state’s tax coffers which in this case were immense. The other main losers are all those legitimate businesses who lost out in their bids for public and private contracts in favour of the mafia’s consortia. The mafia had been able to undercut them since the lower bids had no need to reflect the actual costs of delivering the required services. Additionally all the employees of these cooperatives were victims. They not only lacked what should have been the benefits of participation in a working cooperative but were treated as mere employees exploited by lack of national insurance cover and without contributions made to their eventual pension entitlement. The physical environment also suffered through entrusting works to businesses totally prepared to ignore regulations governing the management and transportation of waste and other forms of environmental control. 

Pane e Tulipani Terrace

Pane e Tulipani’s terrace on the corner of Via Tatti now shows degradation resulting from its mafia association.

The beauty of the scam for the mafia was that they were able to stay in the background, casting their shadow undoubtedly but sheltering behind the facade of one or two known associates. But this description of one of the scam’s chief architects, Massimiliano Ficarra by the Como Carabinieri should leave us in no doubt as to whether the mafia were behind the scam:

 «Massimiliano Ficarra is a dependable and ubiquitous accountant, at the service of various criminal families of accredited ‘Ndrangheta membership. It is immediately obvious that he is constantly used to maneuvering in those environments. He is one of the principal members involved in organized and effective money laundering activity, with particular attention to the reuse, in economic activities, of the money coming from the Molè Piromalli mafia association “.

Conclusion

Bruno De Benedetto was Ficarra’s financial professional ‘of trust’. De Benedetto partnered with Paolo Lanzara in masterminding the Pane e Tulipani bankruptcy. Paolo Lanzara was the Comune of Como’s representative on the board of the utilities company Acsm Agam. Another of Ficarra’s co-defendants, Alessandro Tagliente, resident in Appiano Gentile, was the right hand man of ‘ndrangheta boss Bartolomeo Iaconis, convicted for ordering the murder of Franco Mancuso. The mafia, with this new variant of their particular disease, have certainly cast a deep shadow over the city and Province of Como.

Between June and November 2020 sentences have been passed down on many of the Nuovo Mondo defendants including 12 years imprisonment for Ficarra and 11 for Pravisano. No doubt much more will emerge in coming months including further detail of De Benedetto’s activities and his accusations of usury. In the meantime Como is in the grip of another financial scandal involving some local businessmen and their accountants accused of avoiding tax in exchange for illicit cash payments (tangenti) to senior officials in the city’s tax office – the Ufficio Entrate. But that is another story for the near future!

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Argegno to Colonno

climbing up from Argegno

Climbing up from Argegno and looking back towards Como

The hike from Argegno to Colonno via Pigra has to be one of the most scenic routes on the western side of the lake. Climbing up to Pigra, you look back on the mountains rising up from the Val D’Intelvi. You then enjoy an easy section following the contours of the hills and crossing numerous streams until you reach the delightful alpine hamlet of Corniga. Descending from this point you have open views to the north and south of Lake Como taking in Isola Comacina, the Lavedo peninsula across to Bellagio and the tips of the Grigne mountain range behind.

San Zeno

The church of San Zeno on top of its conical mountain in the Val D’Intelvi

Argegno is a great starting off-point for hiking in the Val D’Intelvi or for joining the Via dei Monti Lariani heading towards the north end of Lake Como. The route described here takes us from the centre of Argegno, up the mule track to Pigra and then on to Corniga to descend down the Valle della Camoggia arriving back on the lakeside at Colonno.  This walk will take you about two hours thirty minutes with an ascent of around 650 metres. Those wishing to take a longer excursion can decide to follow the path to Costone from Pigra which will lead you on to the Alpe di Colonno. From there you can descend to Corniga and on to Colonno. This extension adds a further four hundred metre climb and an additional three hours to the walk. All the paths on this route are good quality mule tracks or better and the signposting is clear and consistent.

Antica Regina

The newly opened section of the Antica Strada Regina from Argegno to Colonno. Signposts for following the path starting from Colonno are not so clear as from Argegno.

A further option exists to follow the newly reopened section of the Antica Strada Regina which links Colonno to Argegno. This route was opened up in July of 2020. It runs above the lakefront rising at its highest point to 250 metres above the level of the lake. This option would allow you to make a round trip starting and returning to Argegno. It would add a further fifty quite arduous minutes to your walk. However be aware that the path for this section is not so well maintained or signposted  as elsewhere with some parts being both steep and narrow. Safety handrails are fortunately provided where deemed necessary. This latter extension to the walk is described in an appendix to the main article. 

Argegno

I travelled out to Argegno from Como on the C10 bus. On alighting in front of the Embarcadero, walk into the old town behind the main piazza and cross the Roman bridge. From here follow the cobbled road making its way up to the Church of Saint Sisinnio. We will be following signs for the Mulatteria di Pigra clearly signposted along our way and also accompanied by the white rectangular route mark with a purple stripe. 

Signposting

Signposting is good along the entire walk following clear well maintained mule tracks up to Pigra and on to Corniga.

It would of course be possible to follow this route in reverse starting from Colonno, passing through the alpine hamlet of Corniga and then descending down to Argegno from Pigra. However I would recommend starting from Argegno since the initial climb is on a well maintained and well signposted path with views over to San Zeno behind you. The section from Pigra to Corniga is the least onerous since it follows the contours of the hillside. When you make your way down the Camoggia Valley after Corniga, you have glorious views over Lake Como accompanying your descent. 

The only time the signposting lets you down is as you enter the district of Dizzasco called Muronico above Saint Sisinnio. The path comes to a cross roads beside a chapel on your right hand side with no indication which of the three options to take. However, just continue your steady climb upwards taking the path straight ahead of you. 

Pigra Hens

Pigra is very quiet during the winter months although the cable car to and from Argegno is still open. Here the hens feel free to wander over the roundabout without fear.

You will know when you are approaching Pigra when you start to see that the terracing is being maintained and the hillside opens up for agriculture. The south-facing alpette  must offer fertile grazing ground over the summer months but the town is very quiet over winter with hens free to roam around the town’s only roundabout just up from the cable car station.  

Pigra

Leaving Pigra

As you leave Pigra following the sign for Corniga and Alpe di Colonno, you pass this chapel on your left.

Pigra is definitely a hikers’ crossroads with trails leading off towards San Fedele Intelvi, Costone and Corniga as well as a sharp right turn to a panoramic beauty spot. All these routes are marked out on a noticeboard just by the hen’s roundabout. For our chosen route, follow the directions marked out for Alpe di Colonno. This path leads to Corniga where we then start our descent for Colonno. If you want to take the longer route, follow the signs for Costone from where you will pick up the military road to Alpe di Colonno and then descend down to Corniga. You will know you are on the direct path to Corniga when you pass the Chapel dedicated to the Madonna del Soccorso as you leave Pigra.

The path now follows the contours of the hillside passing a number of mountain streams before finally crossing the largest, the Camoggia, and making your way on the stream’s northern banks towards Corniga. As you enter Corniga, you look down past the stone roofs of this delightful alpine hamlet to the southerly expanse of Lake Como beneath you. 

Corniga

Corniga

The alpine hamlet of Corniga, well-maintained and partly occupied even in winter.

During the winter months Corniga is very quiet but not entirely deserted. It is in a splendid location and surrounded by south facing fertile alpette. Most of the stone cottages look well maintained although there are still some that have not stood up to the test of time. The mule path we will follow down to Colonno is passable in a small 4×4 vehicle but communications cannot be easy. 

Leaving Corniga

Leaving Corniga for the descent to the lake at Colonno. Beautiful views of the lake along the way.

As you enter Corniga you will see the continuation of the path we have followed pointing to Alpe di Colonno. At this point, we turn right to start our descent on the mule path to Colonno.

The path continues to be well maintained along its entire length with steps cut into it in some of its steepest sections aiding the descent. At a certain point along the way, you will hear and then get glimpses through the trees of a magnificently long waterfall. Its a pity that a full view isn’t possible. The Camoggia makes a very rapid descent towards the lake and there is a much better opportunity to view another of its waterfalls if you decide to take the newly-opened footpath from Colonno back to Argegno.

As you get closer to the lake you will note more terracing supporting olive groves. This area all around Lenno is the centre for olive oil production on Lake Como.

Entering Colonno

Olive groves as you get closer to Colonno.


Colonno

Colonno end of walk

Colonno does not look so appealing seen from the main road but all changes when you venture into its labyrinthine streets.

When you arrive in Colonno you can either decide to take the bus back to Como or take the newly opened continuation of the Antica Strada Regina but bear in mind that this path is a lot more challenging than those encountered previously on the walk. It does however offer the only reasonable alternative to making your way back to Argegno since the main road has no pavement and is in no way suitable for pedestrians. 

Summary

argegno to colonno via pigra

Argegno to Colonno via Pigra, crossing the Camoggia Valley and Corniga. Corniga is marked by the number 1.

Distance: 9.3 km

Time: 2 hours 30 minutes

Climb: 650 metres

Descent: 660 metres

Difficulty: Good fitness required, easily accessible paths, well signposted

argegno to colonno via pigra profile

Pigra is at the highest point on the walk and so the initial climb is sharper than the descent to Colonno.

Appendix: Walking the Antica Strada Regina from Argegno to Colonno

Waterfall

The Camoggia waterfall on the Antica Strada Regina near to Colonno.

The Antica Strada Regina is an ancient walkway linking Italy to Switzerland and extending from Como to Sorico on the western shore of the lake and intersecting with the Via Spluga and Via Francisca. In some parts of the route, the ancient path has been incorporated into the present day main road and is no longer suitable for hiking. This was the case from Brienno, passing through Argegno and on to Colonno where the steep mountainsides did not allow for any alternative path above the lakefront. However a hiking path was opened up this summer to open up a section from Argegno to Colonno. Carving out this path required some ingenuity in avoiding private property and fenced off areas of land. As a result, the route can be challenging and does actually have to rise to over 250 metres above the level of the lake in its bid to avoid these obstacles. The main reward for those braving the path comes as you near Colonno since it takes you to the foot of the Camoggia valley with its glorious waterfall.

Summary Argegno to Colonno on the Antica Strada Regina

argegno to colonno strada regina

This profile follows the start of the route just north of the Saint Sisinnio church in Argegno. The Camoggia waterfall is marked by the number 1.

Distance: 3.5 km

Time: 45 minutes

Climb: 150 metres

Descent: 240 metres

Difficulty: Good fitness required, some narrow and steep sections with safety handrails paths, signposting difficult from Colonno to Argegno.

Further Reading

Other walks along the Antica Strada Regina include:

Intrepid Exploration: Brienno to Laglio on the Via Regina

From Laglio to Moltrasio

Walking the Greenway and the Antica Via Regina

Taking Argegno as your base, you may be interested in Argegno to Argegno: Up and Down the Telo Valley

From Corniga

Descending from Corniga you see Isola Comacina, the Lavedo peninsula, Bellagio, the Grigne mountain range and beyond

 

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R.I.P. Noir in Festival at Como

Poster, Noir in Festival’s 30th Edition to be held in Milan

In 2016 the annual celebration of detective fiction –  Noir in Festival – moved location from Courmayeur in the Val D’Aosta to Como and Milan. Last December the festival was again held in Como and Milan albeit with a reduced presence in Como. In 2020, due to Covid 19 and perhaps also to a lack of commitment from Como’s city council, the face-to-face events of the festival will be postponed until March and will take place only in Milan. So is this the death of ‘Noir in Festival’ for Como? Let’s hope not but if so, it may well fall as another victim to our current city administration’s lukewarm support  for the arts – hence the ‘noirish’ coffin left by demonstrators on the doorsteps of the Teatro Sociale. ‘Noir in Festival’ does however limp on wounded, restricted at present to featuring only Italian authors and constrained to presenting them only online.

The death of culture in Como?

For me back in 2018 I loved nipping out of the house in the late afternoon of a frosty day during the build-up to Christmas to attend any one of the interviews with Italian and foreign authors. These were held in the delightful Sala Bianca of the Teatro Sociale. This year we must content ourselves with the Festival’s series of online interviews available on their You Tube channel. There are two sets of these  interviews with the first featuring the five finalists for this year’s Scerbanenco Prize and the winner of the readers’ vote. The second set consists of  interviews with four of the most well-established current Italian ‘noir’ authors. All interviews focus on the most recent publications from these authors and seek to gain insight into the inspiration behind plot, protagonists and their setting. 

Most of these authors have their works translated but translations into German, French or Spanish seem more common than in English. Maybe these publisher preferences reflect a greater similarity in ‘noir’ themes across Continental Europe than in Britain where the public might be more attuned to Scandinavian ‘noir’. The recent death of John le Carré does however remind me that he is perhaps the most ‘noir’ of British novelists and certainly his themes of moral ambiguity and hidden duplicity executed within the overall context of state-sponsored exploitation of the powerless match very closely those of Italian noir. 

The Scerbanenco Prize

Giorgio Scerbanenco

This literary prize is named after Giorgio Scerbanenco, a Russian-born writer of ‘gialli’ (detective fiction) resident in Milan whose main output was during the 1960s. 

It is awarded annually to an author of detective fiction written in Italian with a book published within the preceding twelve months. The winner this year was Tullio Avoledo with ‘Nero Come La Notte’. The other finalists included in descending order Francesco Abate with ‘I Delitti della Salina’, Lorenza Ghinelli with ‘Tracce dal Silenzio’, Bruno Marchio with ‘Dove Crollano I Sogni’ and Cristina Cassar Scalia with ‘La Salita dei Saponari’. The readers’ vote went to ‘Psychokiller’ by Paolo Roversi

Tullio Avoledo was this year’s winner of the Scerbanenco Prize

Each of these books respect the broad features of the ‘noir’ genre yet retain individuality in terms of plotting (Roversi’s novel is for instance more of a thriller while Lorenza Ghinelli incorporates some aspects of fable). Many have also established the unique traits of their main protagonists – the detectives – by characterising them across a series of novels. One distinct feature of Italian noir is the importance of location with many of the writers incorporating aspects of their detective’s home town as if it were another character in the plot. This partly is a reflection of the marked regional differences across the country determined by separate cultural, economic and political development over the centuries. Scerbanenco himself gave his adopted city of Milan a starring role in his novels as this quote from his Wikipedia entry records:

His writing, in the best known books, is Milanocentric, seldom if ever referencing other cities and regions of Italy, showing a degree of sympathy and appreciation for the Lombard city and its inhabitants which is rarely to be found in other writers. While denouncing the evils of the rampant consumeristic and greedy way of life taking hold from the 60s onward Scerbanenco always has a warm word for the peaceful, quiet, hard-working Milanese.

Cristina Cassar Scalia with another novel featuring her detective Vanina Guarrasi

Paolo Roversi also sets his novels and his detective Enrico Radeschi in his adopted town of Milan. None of his books appear to have been translated into English. Morchio’s detective is called Bacci Pagano and the action is set in the atmospheric port city of Genoa. His ‘The German Client’ has been translated into both English and German. Tullio Avoledo even stood for election campaigning for autonomy for the North East region of Friuli. His novel ‘The Girl from Vajont’ is available in English. Francesco Abate’s entry is set in Cagliari, the capital city of Sardinia. He has works translated into Dutch. Cristina Cassar Scalia’s novels featuring her detective Vanina Guarrasi are set in Catania. Unfortunately I have only found French and German translations of her books.

Francesco Abate’s I Delitti della Salina

Taking a look at this first set of authors – those who were shortlisted for the Scerbanenco Prize – is one way of noting how noir is developing in Italy. While all these writers retain a local focus in terms of setting, it would be wrong to think they are parochial or that their themes lack universality. For example the Sicilian writer Cristina Cassar Scalia, through her detective Vanina Guarrasi, deploys local Catania dialect in her dialogue. Yet she would see herself in a tradition of other Sicilian writers such as Pirandello and would share Leonardo Sciascia’s maxim that anyone who understands Sicily will understands Italy. (And I can add that anyone understanding Italy, admittedly a very hard task, will understand Continental Europe). The use of local dialect has long been in decline but it acts as a nostalgic symbol of an era before mass consumerism perverted values of community and solidarity. This quote from Valerio Varese’s ‘The Lizard Strategy’ (available in English) illustrates the connection:

[Our detective hero Commissario Soneri].. went to Alceste’s restaurant to find something authentic. He chose not to go into the dining room itself but to linger in the kitchen where the official language was dialect and the aromas provide solid anchorage for an identity which outside he saw dissolving and melting in rivers of cash, cocaine and alcohol. The tortelli d’erbetta…’

Varese’s detective, Commissario Soneri, is based in Parma – a city he feels has sold its soul to consumerism and corruption where the local river may look attractive but ‘there are piles of toxic waste along the river bed’ but one can still at least taste a genuine ‘tortelli d’erbetta’. 

Top Ranking Italian Noir

The second series of interviews feature well-established writers

The second set of ‘Noir in Festival’ interviews featured some of the most established of contemporary Italian noir authors, all of whom have registered international success. The purpose of the interviews is to update us on their latest works which may not yet be available in English. The featured writers were Maurizio de Giovanni, Donato Carrisi, Giancarlo de Cataldo and Marco Vichi

The Bastards of Pizzofalcone, a TV series set in this district of Naples

Maurizio de Giovanni’s novels are set in Naples and feature his detective Commissario Ricciardi who has the unsettling capacity of sensing imminent tragedy. He is also the writer behind the television series ‘The Bastards of Pizzofalcone’.  Donato Carrisi and Giancarlo de Cataldo base their stories in Rome. Carrisi has worked extensively in film and television as well as an author of detective fiction. He runs a course at the U.I.L.M. University on writing noir fiction. De Cataldo was a judge at the Rome Court of Appeal and used his insights into the criminal world to produce his greatest success – ‘Romanzo Criminale’  – a fictional account of the various members of the so-called Banda della Magliana who operated in Rome during the late 1970s. He also wrote ‘Suburra’ depicting the battle for the illicit control of Rome through links between local politicians, the Papacy and organised crime. This was made into a film directed by Michele Placido and now forms the base of a television series on Netflix with the same name.

Actor Francesco Acquaroli in the TV series Suburra plays ex-neo fascist terrorist, Samurai, in a chilling depiction of the banality of evil

Marco Vichi has  written a series of detective novels featuring his Commissario Bordelli and set in Florence in the 1960s. All these novelists have works published in English. Not featured this year but always worth a mention is the noirest writer of Italian noir – Massimo Carlotto. His depiction of noir stems from his harrowing personal experience of being accused and judged guilty of murdering a young woman – charges for which he has finally been exonerated after a lifetime’s struggle with the judicial system. His works have been translated into many languages including English. 

Ex-judge of the Rome Court of Appeal and Noir author, Giancarlo de Cataldo

All these interviews forming the online version of this year’s ‘Noir in Festival’ are available on the festival’s YouTube channel. They are all conducted in Italian. The live events including the film showings will take place later in March in Milan. We hope the festival organisers will overcome the Como city administration’s seeming indifference and return in force at the end of next year. Their absence this year, along with all the other cultural events cancelled due to Covid, has been sadly missed.

Local Como Noir

Shadows on the Lake by Cocco and Magella

In the meantime you may want to console yourself by reading Lake Como’s own detective novels. The married couple Giovanni Cocco, born in Como, and Amneris Magella from Milan have written a series of detective novels set in Como and on the lake featuring their detective Stefania Valenti. One of these – – ‘Shadows on the Lake’  – has been translated into English as well as into French, Dutch and German.  The lake has also proved to be a popular setting for some true crime stories of passion or greed. Our article Murder on the Dance Floor- Italy’s Crime of the 20th Century on Lake Como recounts a post-war high society crime of passion committed in the ballroom of the exclusive Villa D’Este Hotel in Cernobbio. Our other article Lake Como’s Moltrasio Trunk Murder recalls how a young American tourist dispatched his wife on their honeymoon in Moltrasio in a bid to clear his debts.  Previous articles have also covered the Noir in Festival for the years 2018 and 2019. We just hope we can return to reporting future editions from next year in the build up to a Como Christmas. 

 

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Gifts for Lovers of Lake Como

Lake Como Carate

Autumn mist on the lake at Carate

This article features a personal selection of gifts that lovers of Lake Como may well appreciate. Those of us lucky to live nearby cannot help but to love the lake’s evocative and dramatic landscape. It also retains a lasting impression on the memories of past visitors as well as projecting an enticing image for those yet to come. So much so that many people may well be delighted to receive a present closely linked to this charmed corner of the world. 

citta del balocchio

Christmas 2109 with the illuminations provided by Citta dei Balocchi.

The range of items selected below can all claim such a close association and might just, in their different ways, pass on something of the unique spirit derived from their place of origin. However this selection is far from complete and some of them may be difficult to purchase if intended for delivery outside of Italy or Europe. If you have set your heart on one of these items but require more information, do not hesitate to make contact directly with the supplier. Personal contact still counts for so much in Italy, 

Lake Como Winter

Every season reveals a different aspect of the lake’s landscape. Here the snow caps the slopes of Monte San Primo as seen from Como.

The range of products featured reflect the main economic activities around the lake, namely silk production, tourism and local foods but with some surprising and somewhat eccentric additions. What I regret not being able to include are those items produced by the very many individual artists, artisans or small enterprises who take inspiration from our glorious natural setting. Refer to this article by fellow blogger ‘Lake Addicted’ who has some further suggestions in this category (article in Italian).

Perfumes

Acqua del Lario

acqua del lario perfume

Acqua del lario have a shop in Como and another in Torno open during he summer. They are also on-line.

Lario is the original Roman name for Lake Como, and this company seek somehow to capture the essence of the lake within perfumes and scented candles – presumably in the same way that the better-known Acqua di Parma does for that agro-industrial town in Emilia Romagna. 

Acqua del Lario describe themselves in the following typically overblown terms:

Acqua del Lario is born out of a harmonious combination of love for perfume and a passion for the landscape and traditions of Lake Como. 

Based on creativity and professionalism, the brand is dedicated to producing fragrances for people and the home, scented burners and candles, using high quality ingredients and craftsmanship to create products distinguished by their uniqueness and exclusivity. 

acqua del lario

Acqua Del Lario’s shop in Via Pantero Pantera, just off Piazza San Fedele in the centre of Como.

Undoubtedly exclusivity does form part of Lake Como’s reality but for the very few. In this sense, achieving exclusivity through the purchase of a perfume or candle will cost much less than gaining the same by spending a night at Torno’s Villa Pliniana.

Outlets: Acqua del Lario have a shop off the Piazza San Fedele in the centre of Como and another in Torno open during the summer months. You can also purchase online from their website. Contact them on +390315007988 for any queries and for more information on transportation costs.

Other Products: They also offer scarves and foulards with designs inspired by Lake Como on silk printed and finished here.

Acqua del Lago di Como

acqua del lago di como

Acqua del Lago di Como

This is another company producing perfumes that attempt to recreate the essence of the lake and which are marketed under the slogan ‘The Classy Souvenir’. They do not have their own outlet but their website describes their range of products and a price list. You can always contact them on +390315007988 for further information.

Lake Como does actually have its own brand of bottled natural water called Chiarella. A bottle of Chiarella will cost a very small fraction of the other Como ‘acquas’ and you can be assured that it is a genuine Lake Como product bottled and distributed from its spring above Menaggio.

chiarella

Lake Como’s own natural water from the spring above Menaggio

By the way, there is nothing ‘exclusive’ about the attractions or the essence of Lake Como. Its charms are immediately accessible to anyone visiting by just looking out on the scenery. In fact, in my experience, those seeking or requiring exclusivity are by definition excluding themselves from the full reality and joys of the location and its local culture. 

Spirits

Rivo Gin

If Acqua del Lario or Del Lago di Como seek metaphorically to represent the essence of the lake, Riva Gin captures these essences literally through foraging on the mountainsides for the local herbs to incorporate into their artisan gin. To quote in their own words from their website:

‘For centuries, local women have scoured the mountainside meadows for herbs and flowers to prepare medicines and remedies. While some may have considered them witches we see them as pioneers of herbal medicine. And it is the theme of magic that inspired our packaging and labelling.Crisscrossing geometrical lines create abstract interpretations of the two key elements of Lake Como’s geography: the mountains and the waves.

Outlets: Rivo Gin is available in local wine shops and also on Amazon.it. If in the UK, try purchasing from hedonism.co.uk to avoid excessive delivery costs. More information is available on their own website.

rivo gin

The lake also stars as the backdrop to this publicity shot from Rivo Gin

Nero di Como

Strong liquor can induce ‘a carefree happiness’ as is suggested in the description of this liquor’s origins taken from their website:

‘It was right during one of these party nights that the finest Calabrian licorice, vintage Carribean rum and local honey were mixed. It came out a delicious liquor, dark and mysterious as a night without the moon. The creator, obviously, called it Nero di Como and soon It became a cult between all the guests of these exclusive soirées by the lake. The word-of-mouth was unstoppable and everyone tried to be invited to taste the particular aroma of Nero di Como, which light up the night and give a carefree happiness. Time seems stopped, because today, just like yesterday, the night lights up with Nero di Como.’

nerodicomo (1)

Dark, mysterious and potent – Nero di Como

Even if the only truly local ingredient of this liquor happens to be honey, we might cynically add that the lake now shares a less desirable link with Calabria beyond liquorice – the unwanted attentions of the ‘ndrangheta, Calabria’s version of the Mafia now undeniably active in many parts of Lombardy and the Province of Como. Yet this should not detract from this liquor’s capacity to light up the night in spite of yet another claim to the spurious and dubious suggestions of exclusivity. I fondly look forward to the day when marketeers flip to extolling the virtues of ‘inclusivity’.

Outlets: Presumably this is also available in local wine shops and also online from the site’s website. Contact them by email at info@nerodicomo.it for further information and details of delivery.

Wine

Lake Como at Dongo

Lake Como at Dongo. Vineyards can be found further north on Lake Como around Domaso.

The mass production of wine around Lake Como never recovered after the last war following the effects of disease and a general migration off the land even though vineyards just across the border in Ticino continue to thrive. That wine was never of the highest quality and in fact was used to dilute stronger wines from the south. However more recently wine production has started up again particularly on the western shores of Lake Como around Domaso. There are two main vineyards in this area, Sorsasso and Cantine Angelinetta and they both produce wines of quality with the Cantine Angelinetta  in particular picking up prestigious awards for their barrel-matured Sauvignon called Occhi Blu. Cantine Angelinetta state that the area of Domaso is best suited to the production of high quality white wine as opposed to the predominance of red wine from the neighbouring Valtellina. One of the white wines they produce is made 100% from a grape variety to be found exclusively on Lake Como, namely Verdese. Now this is a genuine bit of Lake Como exclusivity unrelated to marketing hype and thus also beyond any form of reproach. 

cantine angelinetta

The product range from Cantine Angelinetta with their award-winning Occhi Blu in poll position

Outlets: Sorsasso wines are freely available in local wine shops or by purchasing directly from the vineyard. Cantine Angelinetta wines are produced in reduced quantity and are not so easy to find particularly the much-prized Occhi Blu but they can be tasted and purchased directly from the vineyard.

Contact Sorsasso on +39 0344 910022 or Silvia who speaks English on +39 333.9061392. Contact Cantine Angelinetta on +39 0344.490095

Olive Oil

Rivo Gin’s foragers collect mediterranean herbs that flourish on the lake’s mountainsides thanks to the particular microclimate – the same conditions that have for many years also favoured the production of olive oil in one of its most northerly outposts. The area around Lenno in particular is well known for the production of a highly valued oil and the largest commercial producer there is Osvaldo Vanini. Vanini olive oil is not cheap since production is limited. Also due to its high reputation, Lake Como’s olive oil is commonly faked. So be sure to buy from a reputable producer such as Vanini.

Olive Grove Griante

An olive grove in Griante further up the lake from Lenno.

olio vaniniOlive groves were planted right at the start of the Roman colonisation of the lake when introduced and managed by Greek slaves. It was apprised by none other than the Lombard Queen Teodolinda who lived from 570 CE to 627 CE and so olive oil has the longest history of any Lake Como product. 

Outlets: Check out Vanini’s website for a list of prices and compare these with what is being asked in local shops such as the Enoteca Castiglioni or the Enosalumeria del Centro, both in the centre of Como. The oil is also available in the UK via Amazon. The Enosalumeria state they can supply worldwide so contact them via their website or by calling +39 031 273174 for further information and details of delivery charges.

Enosalumeria del Centro

The Enosalumeria del Centro on Via Independenza in the centre of Como.

Silk

The silk industry remains as important to the local economy of Como as is tourism. And while little silk weaving is now done here, quality silks are brought to local factories by many of the world’s major fashion houses for printing and finishing. Locally produced silk products are available from the major retail outlet in Piazza Cavour or the shop in Via Vittorio Emanuele. The major producers Mantero and Ratti both have discount outlets connected to their factories on the edges of Como accessible for those living locally. Otherwise Incomo offer online purchase with shipping worldwide. 

incomo

Incomo’s retail outlet – their products are also available online.

Outlets: Incomo’s website for online purchases. Contact them on +39 031 505000 for further information. The Mantero factory outlet is on  Via Riccardo Mantero 4, Grandate and Ratti is on  Via Madonna 32, Guanzate. 

Art

Negretti Como

One of Ester Negretti’s landcapes displayed in her studio on Via Borgo Vico.

One of the most pleasurable ways of retaining the essence  of Lake Como is by purchasing artwork which captures in a personal way those aspects of the landscape most memorable to us. We have featured a number of local artists in the past who take inspiration from our inimitable landscape. The area seems to favour both fine artists and illustrators irrespective of whether or not they take inspiration from the lake itself. While all these artists are deserving of attention and patronage, I would single out  Ester Negretti working in her studio on Via Borgo Vico not just because she produces magnificent landscapes but also due to the range of options she offers for presents. These include providing signed prints of any works from her catalogue as well as incorporating her images on silk scarves, foulards or even on cotton covers.  Go to her website to review her catalogue and also to see the various ways she reproduces her work on different mediums. You can also contact her via the website for more information on costs and shipping.

Negretti cover

Ester Negretti displaying a cover printed with one of her designs.

Publishing

There are many beautiful books available describing Lake Como with marvellous illustrations. Last year I was gifted ‘Italian Gardens of Lake Como’ by Lucia Impelluso and published by Electra. This is just one example of the many beautifully illustrated volumes that capture the beauty of the area and no doubt can easily be found online. There is also a local publishing house called ‘Editrice Lariologo’ who publish a whole range of materials referring to Lake Como ranging from greetings cards to fridge magnets, jigsaw puzzles and  board games. It was this latter item that attracted my attention with their ‘Gioco del Oca’ in particular.

boardgame

Il Gioco dell’Oca by Editrice Lariologo

This is a very simple board game without any complex rules which transports the players around the entire borders of the lake from Como or Lecco up to Colico. It too may be one way of recording times spent on Lake Como or for considering which other parts of the lake remain to be discovered.

Outlet: Editrice Lariologo’s products are available from a large range of bookshops around Lake Como but also from their online store which also arranges delivery within and beyond Italy. 

Further Information

If you wanted to follow up within this blog on any of the themes associated with the products highlighted in the article, select any of the following links.

  • Rivo Gin mention how the ancient knowledge of local herbs was often associated with witchcraft. Our article Como’s Train Station, Witches and the Inquisition describes how Como became renowned for the very high numbers of women accused of witchcraft throughout the Middle Ages.
  •  Calabria has, among its many qualities, gifted liquorice root to the making of Nero di Como but the one tragic export from that area has been the increased influence of the ‘ndrangheta in Lombardy and beyond. Our article Don’t Mention the Mafia! describes the results of recent investigation into this regrettable phenomenon.
  • I regret the marketing appeal to exclusivity in the presentation of products like Nero di Como and Acqua del Lario. Our article Tourism on Lake Como – Then and Now includes the Villa Pliniana –  one of the most exclusive and expensive destinations for visitors to the lake.
  • We have written various articles on local artists including Ester Negretti. Ester Maria Negretti – Como’s’Traditional’ Contemporary Artist includes an interview with the artist in which she describes her approach to her art. Other artists featured in our blog include Sonja Christoph, Sarah Aller, Irma Kennaway and Adriano Caverzasio in addition to the internationally renowned group of artists known as the Astrattisti Comaschi.
  • The silk industry is central to Como’s recent history and, in my opinion, is a key factor in producing such a strong artistic tradition in and around the city. Our interview with Irma Kennaway  in Como Silk – Memoirs of a Textile Designer looks into that history and describes what it was like working as a designer for one of Como’s leading silk producers.
  • This year the city of Como will not have the glorious illuminations usually provided by the Citta dei Balocchi. This gallery of photos is a reminder of what Como would look like during the holiday period in any normal year.
Lake Como at Como

Looking out north from the gardens of Villa Olmo in Como.

Posted in Art, Culture, Food, Lake, silk, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Como’s Pantero Pantera and other Admirable Admirals

Teatro Sociale

Visitors to Como’s Teatro Sociale will recognise the stage curtain that depicts the death of Pliny the Elder brought on by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE. This painting 14.5 metres wide by 8.5 metres tall was designed by Alessandro Sanquirico and commissioned to adorn the opening of the theatre in 1813.

With one of Como’s historical naval commanders called Pantero Pantera and the other Pliny the Elder as opposed to the Younger, the attraction of an alliterative title to this article was irresistible.

duomo

Como Cathedral with statues of Pliny the Elder (left of the photo) and Pliny the Younger

Pantera was a commander in the Papal Navy based in Civitavecchia from 1597 to 1615 while Pliny the Elder was appointed by Emperor Vespasian in 76 CE as  ‘Prefect’, or overall Admiral of the senior fleet of the Roman Imperial Navy based in Miseno in the Bay of Naples. Whilst Pliny, also known as Gaio Plinio Secondo, is known even to this day for his work and publications as a naturalist, Pantero Pantera has sunk into obscurity despite the fact that he published one of the first and certainly the most complete manual on naval warfare entitled ‘L’Armata Navale’ in 1614. Both are thus illustrious sons of Como.

Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder was born in Como into a wealthy ‘equestrian’ order family. He was raised in Como as was his sister and her son who took on the name of Pliny the Younger when Pliny formally adopted him. He was appointed by Emperor Vespasian as prefect (akin to Admiral) of the Classis Misenum – the largest of the Imperial fleets based at Miseno in the Bay of Naples and charged with patrolling the western Mediterranean.

Miseno

The red marker is on Miseno, the port to the north east of the island of Procida which housed the most important fleet of the Roman Imperial Navy.

This appointment followed a long and successful  career as a lawyer and procurator in various provinces of the Roman Empire. However his time as the admiral of the fleet was cut short tragically by his death in the major eruption of Vesuvius in 79CE.  Mount Vesuvius, which was not known at the time to be volcanic, lay across the Bay of Naples from Miseno. Pliny took to the sea in his flagship and headed for Pompeii and Herculaneum on hearing news of the first earthquakes and on seeing the plumes of smoke from those early eruptions. He had initially intended just to investigate this unusual natural phenomenon but he set his fleet on a rescue mission as soon as the scale of the danger became apparent. 

pliny and Vesuvius

Pliny the Elder launched his fleet across the Bay of Naples to rescue those fleeing the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE.

His fleet did manage to save many of those residents from Pompeii and Herculaneum before the main eruption but Pliny himself was overcome by the fumes and ash as he tried to escape from Stabia to the south of Pompeii. He died aged 56. His sister and nephew, Pliny the Younger, were living with Pliny at Miseno at the time and his nephew later came to give the only existing first hand account of the Mount Vesuvius eruption in letters written to Tacitus, the Roman historian.  Here is a small excerpt from one of those letters.

[Pliny the Elder] ..changed his plans, and what he had begun in a spirit of inquiry he completed as a hero. He gave orders for the warships to be launched and went on board himself with the intention of bringing help to many more people besides Rectina, for this lovely stretch of coast was thickly populated…..

Ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker as the ships drew near, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames: then suddenly they were in shallow water, and the shore was blocked by the debris from the mountain. – Pliny the Younger, Letters VI 

I recommend those who are interested in the story of Pliny’s mission to Vesuvius to follow up on the suggestions for further reading at the end of this article. The poem quoted below by Primo Levi, scientist, author and holocaust survivor, illustrates the extent to which the Vesuvius eruption and Pliny’s end have retained their fascination on our collective consciousness to the present day: 

Primo Levi: Pliny

Don’t hold me back, friends, let me set out.

I won’t go far; just to the other shore.

I want to observe at close hand that dark cloud,

Shaped like a pine tree, rising above Vesuvius,

And find the source of this strange light.

Nephew, you don’t want to come along?  Fine; stay here and study.

Recopy the notes I gave you yesterday.

You needn’t fear the ash; ash on top of ash.

We’re ash ourselves; remember Epicurus?

Quick, get the boat ready, it is already night:

Night at midday, a portent never seen before.

Don’t worry, sister, I’m cautious and expert;

The years that bowed me haven’t passed in vain.

Of course I’ll come back quickly.  Just give me time

To ferry across, observe the phenomena and return,

Draw a new chapter from them tomorrow

For my books, that will, I hope, still live

When for centuries my old body’s atoms

Will be whirling, dissolved in the vortices of the universe,

Or live again in an eagle, a young girl, a flower.

Sailors, obey me: launch the boat into the sea.

23 May 1978

Primo Levi (1919-1987): Pliny, translated by Ruth Feldman with Brian Swann, in Collected Poems, 1988

quinquereme and liburnum

The large galley is similar to Pliny the Elder’s flagship. It is a quinquereme (with five rows of oarsmen) accompanied by ‘liburni’ – much smaller galleys with a single row of oarsmen. Liburni were deployed extensively in the Classis Comensis, Como’s lake fleet.

The ships launched by Pliny for the rescue were the largest in the fleet – quadriremes – consisting of four banks of oars (remi in Italian). These boats were 39 metres long and four metres wide and powered  by 232 oarsmen.  These galleys did have a sail but it was of secondary importance and never used when in conflict. Mediterranean warships from pre-Roman times until the early 17th century were propelled by oarsmen.

Classis Comensis

Pliny the elder

Pliny the Elder, Como Cathedral

Pliny was admiral of the main Imperial Navy charged with maintaining the security of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Western Mediterranean. The second most important fleet was the Classis Ravennitis, based in Ravenna and responsible for patrolling the Adriatic Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean. There were a number of other Imperial navies based across the Roman Empire including the Classis Comensis – Como’s own Imperial Fleet charged with maintaining the security of transport on Lake Como and ensuring free access to the Val Chiavenna and thus across the Alps into Germany via the Splugen Pass. 

Como’s origins are as a military fortress established by Julius Caesar in recognition of its strategic position in giving access to Alpine crossings and as a key defensive location protecting Milan from Transalpine invasion. He in turn established colonies of Greek immigrants in both Como and around the lake to encourage settlement but also to provide local skills in shipbuilding. The lake’s military fleet did not deploy the massive quadriremes deployed on the Mediterranean but instead they used the much smaller ‘liburnians’ modified from their original Greek design. These much smaller boats usually had a single row of oars but were light, fast and less visible and so were well designed to tackle piracy which was the main security threat on the lake. Later on around the 4th and 5th centuries in the Byzantine period, Como’s fleet was sufficiently important to warrant it being commanded by one of only four admirals of the imperial fleets. Two of these admirals commanded the traditionally important fleets based in Miseno and Ravenna. The other admiral managed a fleet based in Aquileia at the head of the Adriatic positioned to protect the Empire from invasion from the north, as was also the case at Como. 

Forte Montecchio

Lake Como is strategically placed to defend Milan from northern invasion. Defences have been built along its course from Roman times, as at Colico where the Spanish built the Forte di Fuentes in the 1600s and the Forte Montecchio was built in 1914 as part of Italy’s defense against attack across the Splugen Pass.

Not only did Como have a military fleet under the command of one of only four Imperial admirals but, in keeping with its military origins, it also boasted a naval military training school – the ‘Collegio dei nauti comensi’. This military school had two main responsibilities. One was to provide sufficient horsepower and carriages to maintain public services and the other was to teach ‘centurions’ how to conduct protection and warfare on lakes and rivers. The college also provided technical training for the three main artisan crafts needed to support the navy and military. These were training of ‘centonari’ – those who made defensive fabrics for sailors and other woven material including sails, ‘dolabrari’ who made the iron weapons for sailors (picks and axes) and ‘scalari’ who made the ladders used for boarding enemy vessels. Como was known as a centre for iron production and no doubt the navy protected the transport of iron ore down the Valle Albano to Dongo and then down the lake to Como. Steel production in Dongo only ceased very recently. 

Pantero Pantera

Collegio Gallio

Courtyard of the Collegio Gallio, Como, founded in 1583 as a school for poor adolescents by Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio

So with this well established naval tradition in Como, it may not be too surprising that another local citizen should achieve a remarkable career as a sailor, albeit this time in the Papal rather than the Imperial Navy. This was the much lesser known figure of Pantero Pantera born to a noble Como family in 1568. He was sent to Rome following his father’s death and under the protection of Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio. However he was not suited to either of the two principal careers on offer in Rome – within the church or apprenticed to an artist’s studio. He therefore enlisted in the Papal Navy as a captain aboard the galley San Bonaventura. This was one of the ten galleys under Pope Sixtus V. These were deployed to protect the Papal States from Barbary pirates. 

16 century galley

Pantera’s challenges as a galley captain were twofold. Firstly he needed the seamanship skills needed to handle the relatively fragile boat and prevent it from sinking. The 16th century galleys deployed in the Papal Navy had evolved from the triremes (three rows of oars) and biremes( two rows of oars) of the Roman Imperial Navy. Seven of these vessels from the Papal Navy had been deployed as part of a combined European fleet at the major sea battle of Lepanto against the Turks in 1571 when Pantera would have been three years old. Pantero himself described these galleys in his manual ‘L’Armata Navale’ published in 1614:

‘The galley is long, thin and low. It has a single cover which is divided into six rooms. The room at the prow is for the captains, gentlemen and others ‘of respect’. The ‘scandolaro’ is the room adjacent to the prow. Here some of the arms are stored and other possessions of those in the prow along with some barrels of good wine. After the ‘scandolaro’ is the company’s room which serves as a dispensary of wine, preserved foods, oil, vinegar and cheese. After that there is the ‘pagliolo’ where biscuit, flour, rice, water, bread, beans and garlic are stored.’

His second challenge was maintaining order amongst the crew so they obeyed commands and did not mutiny. In this respect, his task was probably much harder than a captain in Pliny’s fleet since the Romans did not deploy slaves. Most of Pompey’s crew would have been recruited from Egypt and could hope to be granted Roman citizenship after 25 or 27 years service whereupon they would receive a reasonably generous cash payment. In Pantera’s day the crew was formed from Turkish slaves (many of whom may have been captured following the Battle of Lepanto) and so-called ‘galeotti’ who were prison inmates deemed suitable for service onboard – hence the modern day Italian term ‘galera’ for a prison. These slaves and prisoners remained chained to their oars. Pantera describes their daily food ration as follows:

‘Two pounds of biscuit, half a pound of cheese or four sardines, a pint of wine, an ounce of oil and a head of garlic’.

Torre Pantera

The Torre Pantera in Piazza Verde, Como

Pantera was promoted Commander of the galley Santa Lucia in 1597 which captured four pirate vessels just in the one year of 1598. He continued his career at sea for a total of fifteen years in which he tried to improve conditions for his crews. He then took up an administrative post on land. He served at a time when warships driven by ranks of oarsmen were being replaced by those using sail. The hybrid form known as ‘Galleazza’, developed by the Venetians, first appeared at the Battle of Lepanto. These massive boats armed with cannon used both manpower and sail for propulsion and manoeuvre. As the 17th century progressed, manpower gave way increasingly to sail and the long era of galleys ended.

Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto in the collection of the National Maritime Museum, London. The larger vessels firing cannon are the ‘galleaza’ – a hybrid vessel developed by the Venetians and powered by both sail and oar.

In 1614 Pantera published his manual on seamanship entitled ‘L’Armata Navale’. It covered a comprehensive set of subjects including the principles of boat construction, battle tactics, logistics and fleet administration. In the following year he retired from the Papal Navy and returned to Como to take up a role in public administration. Here he lived in a villa on the edge of Piazza Verde where the Torre Pantera is still visible. In 1617 he had a villa built on the lakefront at Blevio which no longer stands but  has been replaced by the Villa da Riva which has passed through many different owners, recently including the Istituto Angelicum di Milano which provided accommodation for young unmarried mothers. While living in Blevio he published another account of his time with the Papal Navy before he died in 1625, at the age of 57 – just one year longer than Pliny the Elder.

villa da riva

Villa da Riva, Blevio built on the site of Pantero Pantera’s villa built for his retirement in 1617

Unlike Pliny the Elder, Pantero Pantera remains relatively unknown and unrecognised. Throughout Italy there is just one street named after him in Como along with a piazza in Rome. Strangely enough Pliny the Elder has given his name to a craft beer from Portland, while Pantera’s name was adopted by a Como-based company producing a line of clothing. Initially the use of the name Pantero Pantera was challenged unsuccessfully in the courts by the French jewellers Cartier who claimed it was too close to their series of jewellery named  ‘Panthère’. 

Further Reading

There are no significant further sources of information about Pantero Pantera but there is a lot out there for Pliny the Elder. In particular the blog article by Will Mather for the Western Australia Museum provides a detailed description of Pliny’s rescue mission to Pompeii and his death. The article by Tom Clark entitled ‘The Death of Pliny the Elder’ includes the Primo Levi poem quoted above and excerpts from Pliny the Younger’s letter to Tacitus describing the eruption of Vesuvius and his uncle’s involvement.

The British author Daisy Dunn wrote ‘In the Shadow of Vesuvius: A Life of Pliny’ available in all formats on Amazon. 

The Italian archeologist and author Flavio Russo has also written many books on the eruption of Vesuvius including an account of the scientific analysis of the presumed remains of Pliny the Elder uncovered in an archeological dig in 2014.

Refer to Como’s Historical Fabric and its Pot of Roman Gold for more information on Roman Como and the recent discovery of an amphora containing more than 500 gold coins from the Byzantine period. This horde might be associated with the importance of Como as a military base including its fleet and nautical school.

Posted in History, Lake, People, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

A Circular Tour of Cardina on Monte Olimpino

Dosso Pisani (1)

Villa Dosso Pisani

Looking out from Como’s lakefront, your eye is drawn to a Liberty-style villa on a hilltop – the Villa Dosso Pisani. This villa sits on top of Monte Olimpino near to a small rural village called Cardina which gives its name to the surrounding countryside. The area offers two major attractions. The first is the old settlement of Quarcino with its beautiful romanesque church and the second is the park of Cardina itself with its remains of First World War fortifications and a series of paths criss-crossing the hilltop. However it is not somewhere to walk for views of the lake. Those views are reserved for sites like the Villa Dosso Pisani and for those living along the Via Panoramica San Pietro on the eastern edge of our area.

Cardina is one of very few areas within Como where you can take a pleasant countryside walk while staying entirely within the city’s limits. This has recently become quite an advantage since the imposition of ‘Red Zone’ anti-Covid regulations in Lombardy. While these do allow for unlimited individual outdoor exercise, we are constrained to staying within our own town or city limits. In spite of being within the city, Cardina feels very rural particularly when you venture onto its secondary paths.

cardina aerial

Aerial view of Cardina

Cardina sits between the city districts of Tavernola to the north, Sagnino to the west and Monte Olimpino to the south, all close to the Swiss border. In the past this hilltop would have been productive agricultural land given over to vineyards and chestnut groves. Nowadays it is mostly wooded except around the small community of Cardina itself with its restaurant ‘Il Crotto del Lupo’ near to the pond known rather grandly as the ‘Laghetto di Cardina’.

Laghetto

The Laghetto di Cardina near to the restaurant ‘Il Crotto del Lupo’

The area around the laghetto used to be a popular spot for families to take a stroll in the countryside at weekends. This is where you are most likely to come across other walkers since it still is very attractive. Cardina remains a curious but rather overlooked oasis of green surrounded by urban development on all sides. It lacks the care and maintenance evident in its cossetted southerly neighbour, the Parco Spina Verde, but well worth a visit for those who like full countryside immersion.

signage

Signposting is inconsistent

The paths through the woods vary in quality with some parts only slightly discernable from the surrounding woodland although steps are provided on steep slopes.  The signposting is also minimal and inconsistent.  However there is little to fear if you are temporarily lost since you are surrounded by urban development. You can reach a start point by car or by any of the other buses serving Monte Olimpino (numbers 7 and 1), Sagnino (Number 7) or Tavernola (Number 11).

The starting point chosen for this route was just above the church of  Cristo Re in Tavernola at  the junction  of Via Conciliazione with Via Raimondi. There is both a bus stop on the No. 11 route at Via Tibaldi 6 and a small car park at this point.

The noticeboard shown in the photo below marks the start of the walk. It identifies points of interest around Cardina including the defences built for the First World War which are part of what is known as the Linea Cadorna. These defences which run through the Parco Spina Verde, and along the length of the Swiss border to Sasso Gordona above Schignano, were built to defend against a possible attack from Austrian forces crossing through Switzerland.

A Start

Directions

routemap

The starting point (A) is on the curve of Via Conciliazione where the private road, Via Raimondi, goes off to the left. You will see the noticeboard shown above on this corner.  The road turns from tarmac to gravel and shortly after you will see the hiking path go off to the right.

As you walk along the northern edge of the Cardina hill, the area becomes more humid and lots of mushrooms are to be seen. This is also the least well-maintained part of the walk and one section in particular is marred by many fallen trees obstructing the path. However it is worth persisting but noting where you need to take an alternative route when returning.

With a decisive turn to the left after the fallen trees, you start a gradual climb up to the highest part of the walk (around 450 metres above sea level). From here you take a narrow path that eventually opens up on to the tarmacced road leading down to the Cardina community.

You will now pass the old settlement of Cardina with its farmhouses and a small chapel attached to a building which is now rented out for holiday lets. The road leads down to the restaurant ‘Il Crotto del lupo’ which has been in he same hands for a number of years and specialises in dishes from the Valtellina. It is also a bar so a handy place to stop before passing the laghetto and making your way back to your starting point.

Refreshments

‘Il Crotto del Lupo’ – Website: https://www.crottodellupo.net/it/

Contact information: +39 031 570881 or +39 347 817 8428

Summary

Distance: 4 km

Time: 1 hour 20 mins

Climb: 190 metres

Descent: 190 metres

Difficulty: Intermediate, sure-footedness required

Profile

cardina profile

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Lake Como Poetry Way and its Little Free Libraries

San Donato

The San Donato Sanctuary on the Sentiero Alda Merini from Como to Brunate

The path leading up from Como past the San Donato Sanctuary and on to Brunate has now been named the Sentiero Alda Merini in honour of the Milanese poet who had a close family connection with the hilltop village. The Sentiero Alda Merini in turn forms part of a much longer walk that connects various points of local literary interest and is fittingly called Lake Como Poetry Way. It starts off from Maslianico close to the Swiss border, passes through Cernobbio to Como and ends at San Maurizio, above Brunate. 

San Maurizio Brunate

The Church of San Maurizio above Brunate

We reported back in December last year how the Sentiero Alda Merini, now part of the Poetry Way, has a series of wooden signs along its path with quotes from Alda and other writers prompting walkers to pause and reflect. The plan is to extend these signs along the entire length of the route reinforcing the different literary associations to be found locally. In these times of Covid, confronted by the challenges of isolation and heavy background anxiety, we are constantly reminded of the remedial advantages of exercise and country walks. The beauty of the Poetry Way and the addition of the literary quotes posted along its path add a further reflective dimension to these mental benefits.

Rodari

Bi-lingual quotes from numerous authors now illustrate the literary quality of the Poetry Way.

The Poetry Way  is a project initiated by Pietro Berra, a Brunate-based poet and journalist, and driven by Sentiero dei Sogni, a voluntary association committed to building cultural bridges and promoting sustainable cultural tourism. Their motto is ‘Discover, Connect, Create’.  Lake Como is rich in literary associations dating from the early Latin poet, Caecilius Statius, the Roman authors Pliny the Elder and Younger, and on to Paolo Giovio who in the Middle Ages established Europe’s first museum on the Como lakefront where the Villa Gallia now stands. Foreign literary figures became constant visitors from the start of the 18th century with arguably the most renowned being the English Romantics – Wordsworth, Byron and the two Shelleys. As a result the walk incorporates references to both Italian and foreign literary figures with quotes signposted in both Italian and English. As the Sentiero dei Sogni’s website  states ‘Lake Como’s Poetry Way will lead you to discover a city rich in personalities, culture and delightful unusual panoramas.’

Monte Rosa from Brunate

View over to Monte Rosa from Brunate

The Sentiero Alda Merini has over the last few months been enriched by posting a number of new literary quotes along it way. The start of her section of the walk in Como has one of her sayings ‘We are born not only to live but to walk for long with feet that do not know their home and travel beyond every mountain’. The end of her section of the walk in Brunate includes one of her self-deprecating quotes  – ‘I am not a domesticated woman  – I am a small enraged bee.’ Between these two panels, you will also come across quotes from Thoreau, Wordsworth, Walt Whitman, Alessandro Volta (who both painted and wrote poetry as well as inventing batteries), Gianni Rodari and Samuel Rogers. 

Samuel Rogers

Quote inspired by Laker Como from forgotten contemporary of Wordsworth, Samuel Rogers.

Thanks to the recent celebration of the centenary of Gianni Rodari’s birth, I have recently been made aware of his work as a children’s author and illustrator but Samuel Rogers was totally unknown to me, and, I expect, to most others! He turns out to have been a contemporary Romantic poet of William Wordsworth who achieved considerable popularity during his lifetime only to be later eclipsed by the other Romantic poets. Lake Como featured prominently in his poetry and his collection entitled ‘Italy’, illustrated with prints of Lake Como landscapes by J.M.W. Turner , proved massively popular. Rogers’ verse and Turner’s prints proved to be a profound influence on John Ruskin, the art critic most responsible for influencing Victorian neo-gothic aesthetic taste. 

The entry in the Tate Gallery’s catalogue of Turner’s painting above states: ‘ In producing this tranquil and picturesque scene, Turner may well have referred to the many sketches he made of Como during his 1819 visit to Italy. The villas, skiffs, and majestic mountain scenery of these drawings reappear in idealised form in Turner’s delicate vignette.’

The Poetry Way is work in progress still awaiting completion of the signage along the entire route and the online publication of its map which can be requested in hard copy from the Sentiero dei Sogni’s web site. However it is a great concept and the authors know exactly which literary figures they intend to reference and where.

Ugo Foscolo

The bust of Ugo Foscolo in the gardens of the Villa del Grumello

Ugo Foscali for instance is clearly associated with the Villa del Grumello, the summer villa of his father-in-law, GianBattista  Giovio, a descendent of Paolo Giovio and a friend and travel companion of Alessandro Volta. There is a quote from William Wordsworth posted along the Sentiero Alda Merini taken from his journal of a walking tour undertaken in 1790 in the company of his friend from university, Robert Jones. There is no record that he actually visited Como but his verse was inspired by the view higher up the lake possibly nearer to Dongo. The other literary figures referred to along the Poetry Way, in addition to those already mentioned, include Vincenzo Monti, Giacomo Leopardi, Pencho Slaveikov, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and Hermann Hesse.

Marvellous as the Poetry Way is, the one feature that potentially transforms it is the inclusion of a chain of ‘Little Free Libraries’ along its path. Little Free Libraries are nothing more than small wooden containers housing books for exchange under the slogan ‘Take a book, leave a book (Prendi un libro o lascia un libro)’.

Prendi o lascia

Take a book, leave a book – One of the chain of 12 Little Free Libraries along the route of the Lake Como Poetry Way from Maslianico to Brunate.

The simple concept of providing these small weather-proof housings for anonymous book exchange was born in the United States but has now spread across the world. However, here thanks to the Poetry Way of Sentiero dei Sogni and the contributions of other volunteers and associations, Como now has a chain of 12 of these containers stretching over the 12 kilometers of the Poetry Way starting in Maslianico and ending in San Maurizio, above Brunate. Books in all languages are welcome. I found the little library in Cernobbio’s Giardino della Valle a particularly good source of books in English as well as others.

Map Little Free Libraries

Map of the 12 Little Free Libraries along the route of the Lake Como Poetry Way

For more information about the Lake Como Poetry Way, visit the Sentiero dei Sogni website. Also visit the site of Passeggiate Creative for information about the cultural walks they organise. Sentiero dei Sogni have launched another major project to translate from English to Italian Mary Shelley’s autobiographical account of her journey to Lake Como accompanied by her son. Refer to Holidaying on Lake Como: In the Footsteps of Mary Shelley for details of this journey and her stay in Tremezzina. 

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Como’s Festival of Misultin and Lake Fish

gastrolarioBack in October 2018 we wrote about the flurry of food festivals launched around Lake Como. These are intended to attract people into dining in local restaurants during what would normally be a quiet period between the summer and winter seasons. One of these festivals, GastroLario, is now into its third year but has made some significant changes to its format. It is now hoping to draw people into dining out through a focussed celebration of local lake fish entitled ‘The Festival of Misultin and Lake Fish’ or ‘Festival del Misultin e del Pess de Lac’ in local dialect.

misultin

Missoltini drying in the sun prior to being packed and pressed into tins called ‘missolte’ from which this delicacy gets its name.

In the two previous years GastroLario’s initiative had covered both mountain and lake cuisines within the same period but for this and all subsequent years, GastroLario will  feature just the lake cuisine throughout the month of October with a  celebration of the lake’s best known speciality – missoltini. GastroLario will be followed in November by a different initiative named GustoBrianza which will feature Brianzan or mountain cuisine. tira molaThe other major local food festival honours a single dish – the belly-busting winter delicacy of cassuola made from pork and cabbage. The cassuola festival runs annually from January to March even though cassuola features on local menus from November onwards.  

The  changed format for GastroLario is designed to create greater awareness of the lake cuisine which will  in turn help promote the lake’s attractions beyond the end of the summer season. There are 25 restaurants participating in the festival with most but not all positioned on or close to the lake (the furthest away is in Mariano Comense on the southern edge of Como Province). These restaurants range from those which can be classed as ‘luxury’ such as the Antica Darsena in Como or the Imperialino in Moltrasio, to those which classify themselves as neighbourhood establishments many of whom seem to be located along Via Bellinzona.

Momi Restaurant

Momi’s Restaurant, Blevio – just one location where the beauty of the view is matched by the quality of the local cuisine.

Those facing directly onto the lake include Momi’s in Blevio and the Hotel Vapore in Torno (both firm favourites of mine). In the words of GastroLario’s organiser, Claudio Bizzozero, ‘the best way to get to know the area is to unite the beauty of the landscape with the beauty of the dishes proposed by our restauranteurs.’  Consult the GastoLario website for a full list of the participating restaurants and for details of the festival dishes proposed by each of them.

logo fish

GastroLario’s focus on lake fish has prompted them to develop some charming graphics

Needless to say, most of the participating restaurants will be offering missoltini, or ‘misultin’ in dialect. Missoltini are unique to Lake Como being a form of preserved freshwater sardine with a very distinctive flavour which, to be honest, is not to everyone’s taste. If  you do find missoltini a bit strong, you may well prefer one of the other lake specialities such as lavarello (whitefish) usually served grilled with butter and sage. Perch fillets have a very delicate flavour which goes very well either on buttery rice or a creamy risotto. Another local delicacy is paté di cavedano (chub). Chub have lots of small bones and so, for safety reasons, are only served in paté form within restaurants.

chub

Chub come close to the shore to take advantage of bread fed to the ducks and swans.

Missoltini are the preserved versions of a lake fish called agone or shard in English. They are a form of freshwater sardine that evolved from its marine origins when the continents formed. The lake hosts another species with a similar history, the ‘bottatrice’ or burbot in English which is a freshwater relative of cod.

fishing for agoneFishing for agoni has been strictly controlled since medieval times to ensure stock levels. The agoni make their way to the shallow waters near the shore to lay their eggs in May to mid-June. Fishing is prohibited during this period but they are fair game from mid-June onwards for two months. Once cleaned, the fish are salted, dried (often in the sun) and then pressed into tins with some laurel or other flavourings. The tins are called ‘missolte’, from which the fish get the name ‘misultin’ or ‘missoltini’ in Italian. They are served grilled and often accompanied by polenta. There are a number of festivals or sagras dedicated to missoltini around the lake with the best-known  being in Mezzegra, a district of Tremezzina. This sagra normally takes place on or close to the last weekend in August but fell victim this year to Covid 19. Tremezzina’s other major summer event – the Sagra di San Giovanni, was a similar victim this year. The Sagra del Missoltino has been running for 50 years and will hopefully return in 2021 alongside Isola Comacina’s Sagra di San Giovanni. 

missoltini cooking

Grilling missoltini at the Sagra di Missoltini held at Mezzagra towards the end of August

Preserving fish was obviously critical before the days of refrigeration and missoltini were part of the staple diet of those living around the lake. Salting and drying was not the only way of preserving fish with the other main method being to marinate cooked fish in a vinegar-based liquid called ‘carpione’. Carpione as a method of preservation has been used since ancient times on the lake. Fish ‘in carpione’ are normally served cold these days as an antipasto. It offers a different way of enjoying agone other than as missoltino or lavarello other than grilled. Historically it was often used to counter the somewhat muddy taste of carp, hence the probable source of its name.    

missoltini

Missoltini being prepared at misultinshop.it

Some people have questioned to what extent the lake fish on offer in local restaurants actually originate from Lake Como. I don’t think we need be concerned over the provenance of missoltini even though there have been moments when concerns have been raised over the numbers of agoni in the lake. As mentioned previously, the fishing of agoni has been controlled over centuries. The origins of some perch fillets might be more questionable but, even though stocks have dropped low in the past, current indications are more positive.  Many of the lake’s perch are however quite small. There are a firm set of regulations defining closed seasons for each type of fish species with rules on the size and the numbers of caught fish that can be retained. Levels of water pollution have declined over the years as it has become illegal to allow untreated waste to flow into the lake.

misultin1

Missoltini are typically served grilled alongside polenta

However climate change and the resulting increase in the variations of lake level are a threat. Many species including agone come close to shore to spawn and, if the level of the lake subsequently drops dramatically as it has done in recent years, their eggs do not survive exposure above or just below the water level. The other unseen and as yet, unquantified threat comes from the level of micro-plastic pollution which is high on the lake as it is almost everywhere. Some recent research with marine fish has shown how microplastics can provide a platform for the development of harmful bacteria which could possibly become a threat to some species.

cormorant

One of the many Como cormorants

Empirically the arrival in recent years of large colonies of cormorants on the lake does suggest that fish stocks must be quite healthy. An article in La Provincia back in February this year highlighted a colony of up to 250 cormorants nesting in Blevio with the estimate that they consumed around 120Kg of fish a day – twice the quantity of fish consumed during Mezzegra’s Sagra di Missoltini back in 2019. Their numbers have grown significantly over the last two or three years with a migratory pattern that sees most of them flying off north in Spring only to return again in autumn. These increased numbers must indicate that the lake is well enough stocked to maintain their ever increasing numbers, but the local fishermen feel the birds are taking more than fair shares.

In spite of the cormorants, we can feel confident that fish stocks held by the 25 restaurants featured in the Festival of Misultin will originate from Lake Como and be numerous enough to meet our needs. The Festival website also welcomes feedback on the individual dishes offered by the participating restaurants. Those contributing their feedback stand the chance of receiving a voucher allowing them to go back and eat again at their selected location. There is of course no need to limit yourself to the restaurants listed in the festival if looking to taste genuine local cuisine. There are many other restaurants around the lake with local fish on their menu all year round. 

trattoria del ponte

The Trattoria del Ponte in Careno offers a fixed menu consisting entirely of lake fish. It is only open during the summer season and is not included in the GastroLario festival.

If by chance you develop a passion for missoltini or other lake fish ‘in carpione’, there are shops who stock them such as Castiglioni in Como or outlets dedicated to lake fish like Le Specialita Lariane in Cernobbio. You can even acquire missoltini online from Misultinshop.it – a processing plant and shop in Olginate on the Lecco leg of the lake. Lake fish, with lavarello in particular, are on sale from either of the two fishmongers within Como’s covered market. And if you fancy fishing yourself for whitefish, shard, chub, char, carp or burbot, get your equipment and fishing licence from Ropino (25 Via Asiago) in Tavernola or contact  Lake Como Fishing in Griante for a day’s excursion by boat on the lake or on the River Adda and some of its tributaries in the Valtellina. Staff at Ropino and Lake Como Fishing are all said to be exceptionally helpful and willing to give advice on all matters relating to fishing on the lake. 

fishing authority

Day fishing licenses are available from Ropino in Tavernola opposite Bennets supermarket.

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