Strada Regia: From Pognana to Nesso (and back)

san martino campanile

Bell tower of San Martino Church, Careno with Laglio on the other side of the lake

Ancient terraces, woods, medieval villages with Romanesque churches and iconic lakeside locations – this tract of the Strada Regia has it all. It is different in feel but as spectacular as the previous section of the path that took us through the three beautiful mountain communities of Molina, Lemna  and Palanzo.

The last section ended at Peppo’s Bar in Pognana Lario just below the town hall (municipio) and right by the bus stop for the C30 to and from Como or Bellagio. Walking north from here, turn off as soon as you see a turning on the right with a sign to the Romanesque church of San Miro. This twelfth century church was established on a previous site of pagan worship and boasts a marvellous view of the lake from its patio.


View from San Miro

Patio of San Miro Church, Pognana with view looking northwards up the lake

From here you can pick up the signposting for the Strada Regia. The signs are so good that there is no need to give detailed directions here except when facing  the ‘dilemna’ posed by two contrasting signs which you will find as you walk through the medieval ‘frazione’ of Pognana called Quarzano.

Signpost dilemna

On the edge of Pognana, the Strada Regia offers you a choice – take the left fork or live to regret it!

The right hand fork leads you up into the Careno mountain range taking you up from around 300 metres above sea level to a maximum of 700 and on a path that is steep and challenging in parts. The option offered by the left-hand fork is to descend down to the small lakeside town of Careno prior to then ascending a mountain road prior to a further descent to the lakeside at Nesso. This second option is both more interesting as a walk and less onerous even though the uphill section is not for the faint-hearted. I took this second option and soon found myself walking on a pleasant level path through well-tended terraces reminiscent of how much of the area would have looked like as recently as the 1950s before most of the lakeside agriculture was abandoned. On this section of the walk, large dry-stone walls of Moltrasio stone still remain intact revealing just how much effort went into the creation and preservation of these small strips of agricultural production.


Having passed by a sanctuary and then descending down to a quarry on the main road, (presumably the source of the material used in the dry stone walls) after 100 metres  I turned down Via del Pero to get down to the lakefront at Careno.


San Martino Careno

San Martino, Careno

Careno is a true hidden gem with everything you might be looking for in a personal secret haven, including yet another glorious Romanesque church (San Martino), a beach for a cool swim in the lake, a small restaurant specialising in fish and a jetty for one of the boats from the Navigazione Laghi to take you back home after your prolonged taste of heaven.

Spiaggia Careno

The ‘spiaggia’ or beach at Careno, just below the Romanesque church of San Martino.

A descent to the lakefront is a small but very worthwhile detour from the Strada Regia sufficient to prepare yourself for the almost relentless uphill climb past the modern (18th century) church which passes under the main road for Bellagio and then up the Via dei Monti . The path is orderly but the climb is steep so eventually you will undoubtedly meet the sign pointing you left and down towards Nesso with some relief.

Mount Careno

Turn left at the signs here off Via dei Monti to end the seemingly relentless climb up towards Monte Cappon and start your descent to Nesso.

This hardest section of the walk is however shaded by the woods so is manageable even in high summer.  The downhill path leads you rapidly down through the woods, past an ancient water trough and past a further sanctuary until you come out of the woods with a view over the lake to Argegno with its cable car up to the village of Pigra.

As you come back down towards the level of the main road, you pass by the ruins of Nesso castle with a view to your right of the impressive waterfalls known as the Orrido di Nesso. As with Careno, it is well worth going down to the lakeside at Nesso to view its famous bridge and take a dip in the the lake.


Bridge at Nesso

Nesso’s lakefront bridge

There is no actual beach here or a bar or trattoria unlike at Careno but the boats from the Navigazione do stop here at the Imbarcadero. To eat I recommend walking back up  to the main road and stopping at the Hotel Tre Rose which, apart from a full menu, also offers an excellent value Menu del Giorno.

From Lenno, you can either take the boat or a bus back to Como or Bellagio but I decided to walk back to Pognana to check out that section of the walk I had missed out on in preference to passing by Careno.  I therefore retraced my path past the Castello di Nesso and up into the woods noting this time some examples of naïve religious art along the way.

More naive art

Naive religious art usually carried out by the local ‘decorator’ and often retouched over the years.

In fact this walk seemed to be dotted with the occasional sanctuary or chapel in various states of order. As I rejoined the Via dei Monti I continued to climb upwards towards the mountain community just below the summit of Mount Cappon.

Mountain community

The mountain community just below the summit of Monte Cappon in the string of mountains known as Monti Careno.

Here again to my relief, the sign for the Strada Regia led me off the uphill path to walk on the flat through untended ancient terraces until it started its descent to Pognana. The downhill section was steep in parts making me thankful that I had not chosen this route in preference to the Careno option back near the start of the day. In fact it was with some relief that the path finally opened up into the managed terraces on the edge of Pognana offering a breathtaking and welcome view southwards down the lake.

return view from Pognana

View south over the lake as you emerge from the woods on the outskirts of Pognana

This section of the Strada Regia is definitely more onerous than the previous one’s amble through the mid-height medieval villages of Faggeto Lario. Here the uphill sections require a degree of patience and fortitude but these virtues do bring their own reward with the discovery of the secret heaven that is Careno and the better known and equally glorious lakefront at Nesso. In between these two lakefront gems, you are surrounded by art and a sense of the years past through the stark simplicity of the Romanesque architecture and the varying degrees of artistry in the religious frescoes. Then as you pass through either maintained or untended terraces, it is as if you are walking through history in step with the rhythm of a different age.


Ancient terracing above Nesso

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Lake Como’s Speciality Dishes and Local Products

One of the many delights in travelling around Italy is discovering the culinary specialities of the town or area you are visiting.  There is such a rich variety based on the geographical and climatic aspects and also the traditions and customs of each region. Como and its lake are no different with a cuisine obviously influenced by lake and mountain and by the culinary traditions from Brianza (for the southern part of the lake) and the Valtellina (for the north).

The Lake


Lone fisherman in front of Villa Geno, Como

The most iconic product from the lake, and one that is definitely not to everyone’s taste, is missoltini – a salted and pickled small fish. As with most Italian specialities, this is a fine example of ‘cucina povera’ based on a long tradition of preserving the small and insipid ‘agone’ fish to provide sustenance over the year. The end result of the preservation process is a highly flavoured sprat which in the past provided a valuable source of protein but which is now considered a delicacy for those who have acquired their distinctive taste.  The best way I have tried missoltini was as a sauce with fish roe on pasta from the Hotel Vapore in Torno best experienced on their terrace on the banks of the lake.


Cured fish at Le Specialità Lariane in Cernobbio

Missoltini and other smoked and preserved local fish are produced and sold by the long established ‘Le Specialità Lariane’ which has a production facility in Tremezzo and a shop both there and in Cernobbio.

La Pergola Pescallo

La Pergola – Pescallo. One of the most beautiful locations to it and eat perch fillet risotto

The lake is well stocked with fish but unfortunately the numbers of perch have declined dramatically meaning that the luxury lake dish of perch fillets and risotto is potentially as delicious as ever but the perch may well have come from elsewhere. It is a supremely refined dish dependent on the quality of the creamy risotto and the freshness of the fish. You are likely to find it on the menus of the more expensive restaurants around the lake – my fellow blogger, Lake Como Style – recommended the beautifully located ‘La Pergola’ on the lakefront at Pescallo in Bellagio as being one of the best.


‘Le Specialità Lariane’ in Cernobbio. They also have a production and retail outlet in Tremezzo.

Strangely enough, Como is also well provided with seafood as well as fresh water fish notwithstanding the fact that it must be as far from the sea as one can get in Italy. But it is very close to Milan which boasts the best fish in Italy due to the national importance of its wholesale market. Try ‘La Valverde’ – a genuine Sicilian-run restaurant in Cernobbio – or the more expensive but good ‘Le Soste’ in Como’s old town to experience quality fresh products.

The Mountains


A ‘nevere’ – traditional Alpine construction packed with snow in Spring to provide storage for milk products during the summer season. This one is above Moltrasio.

But back to the mountains and the alps which have traditionally produced cow and goat cheeses for years. Try out the local producers’ section of the covered market in Via Mentana. There are at least four stalls selling local dairy products. The main section of the market sell cheeses from further afield in Lombardy such as the Valtellina and the rest of Italy.

Market local producers

Cheese and salumi in the local producers’ section of the covered market in Como.

Lake Como is the most northerly zone for olive oil production thanks to the specific micro climate around Lenno which is influenced by the lake and the shelter provided by the mountains behind. Olive oil has been produced in Lenno since Roman times and is much prized and so is often falsely represented. Buy a known brand from a reputable store to be sure of getting the genuine article. Go for oil from Vanini Osvaldo from a shop such as Castiglioni on Como’s Via Cantu to avoid any disappointment.

olive oil

Olive oil from Lenno produced by Vanini Osvaldo

Further up the western side of the lake, at Domaso to be precise, are two of the most important vineyards on Lake Como. In the past there were as many vines as can be found today just over the border around Mendrisio although the wine they produced was light and so was used to blend with stronger wines from the south. Current day IGT Terre Lariane (Indicazione Geografica Tipica) wines are of much higher quality and known for freshness, fruitiness and overall flavour. Included in this category are the wines from Montevecchio in Brianza. The two Domaso vineyards are Sorsasso and Cantine Angelinetta – contact either of them to arrange for a wine tasting. Shops such as Castiglioni will stock wines from Montevecchia and from Lake Como on their local shelves.

Local wines

Wines with the appellation IGT Terre Lariane come predominantly from Domaso on Lake Como or from Montevecchia in Brianza. These are available from Castiglioni in Via Cantu, Como.

Much of the terracing that covered the mountain sides rising up from the lake is now covered in trees following the switch to industrial employment after the last war. Just as few as eighty years ago, the mountains around the lake would have looked very different with the carefully tended terraces marked out with their dry stone walls made of Moltrasio stone supporting vine, grain and chestnut groves. Unfortunately now the chestnut trees remain untended and their fruits are eaten mostly by the groups of wild boar living in the woods.

Pizzoccheri and polenta

Pizzoccheri and polenta uncia – both made with buckwheat flour, butter and cheese. Rich mountain food available all year round!

The rural and mountain tradition has given the area a specific dish which formed the staple diet for country people for centuries – polenta. Or to be more precise, polenta uncia which is a polenta enriched with mountain cheese and butter. The preferred flour for polenta in this area is buckwheat which produces the grey rather than yellow polenta. This is the same flour used in that typical dish from the Valtellina – pizzoccheri – a truly glorious pasta dish for a cold day consisting of cheese, potato and some greens with some additional butter and garlic.

cheesePolenta and pizzoccheri form the staple offer in the many ‘baita’ (alpine buildings) restaurants in the mountains around Como. They serve these traditional dishes right through the summer heat which may sound a bit off-putting. Believe me though that after a brisk walk even in summer, a plate of polenta uncia or pizzoccheri (or both) accompanied by the most modest of red wines is pure heaven.  Some baitas around Como offer transport up to them such as the Cascina Respau in the Parco Spina Verde or the Baita Monte Goj above Montorfano. Others along the mountain path to Bellagio from Brunate (Baita Bondella and Boletto) are good. Baita Pianvalle on Monte Croce cook steak on an open barbecue during the summer months.

A Como Exclusive

Resta Panettone

‘Resta’ Panettone – A Como Speciality produced by La Vecchia Como in Via Lambertenghi

Pandoro and panettone are traditional sweet bread loaves from Lombardy and Como has its own variety which has an important added ingredient, namely an olive stick. The bread is called Resta and by tradition it was prepared for Palm Sunday. The olive stick has its religious symbolism for Easter but the commercially-minded bakers of Como back 100 years ago decided to combine their bread with this religious symbol so as to increase sales over Easter.  Their next target was to create a demand for this speciality all year round. Resta can be bought where it is produced, namely at  ‘La Vecchia Como’ in Via Lambertenghi, Como. This baker also produces some spectacularly decorated chocolate eggs at Easter time.

Vecchia Como

Vecchia Como bakers in Via Lambertenghi

The influences of lake and mountain hold sway across the entire lake on both the Como and Lecco legs and north to Colico. The regional influence of Brianza (the area best represented by an inverted triangle with its southern angle at Monza and the two northern corners at Como and Lecco) is reflected in the local cuisine around Como or Lecco. For example, try the delicious pork and cabbage  dish, cazzuola, at Cernobbio’s ‘Osteria del Beuc’ from November onwards or from whenever the cabbage’s flavours have been intensified following the first frosts. This typical dish from Brianza was made to use up the most modest parts of the pig, but as is often the case, the traditions of cucina povera manage to transform the most modest of ingredients into the tastiest of dishes.

At the north end of the lake the regional influence is from that culinary hotspot – the Valtellina, a valley which runs east starting at Colico where the River Adda enters the lake. Pizzoccheri has already been mentioned but another dish from this region often found on the lake is ‘sciatt’. This sounds unpleasant enough in English but is equally unpleasant when translated from the Valtellinese dialect to mean ‘toad’ given the shape rather than the content of this fried cheese dish. Try out this and a glorious risotto of ‘bitto’ cheese and wine at the Hotel del Mera on Via Dascio, Sorico on the banks of the Lago di Mezzola – a calm northern extension to Lake Como. This hotel’s restaurant is worth a pilgrimage – simple local cooking done exquisitely well.

If you get to read this article as soon as published, you will be in time to sample for yourself the polenta and cheeses of the area at the festival in Ossuccio held on Saturday and Sunday (14th and 15th July). If not, the following lists the contact details for most of the businesses mentioned in the article above.

Osteria del beuc

Osteria del Beuc


Missoltini and local fish products –

Le Specialita Lariane, Via Cinque Giornate 59, Cernobbio.  Website: +39 0344 55250

Olive Oil and local wine:

Castiglioni, Via Cantu , Como Website: Tel: +39


Valverde, Viale Matteotti 29, Cernobbio Website:  Tel: +39 031 511150

Osteria del Beuc,  Via Felice Cavallotti, 1 Cernobbio Website:  Tel: +39 031 341633

Le Soste, Via Diaz 59, Como Website: Tel: +39 031 261126

Hotel Vapore, Via Plinio 20, Torno Website: Tel: +39.031.419311

La Pergola, Piazza del Porto 4, Pescallo, Bellagio Website: Tel: +39 031 950263

Hotel del Mera, Via del Dascio 11, Sorico  Website:  Tel: 0039 0344 84147


Castiglioni Delicatessen on Via Cantu

Baita and Rifugi

Baita Pianvalle  Via Monte Croce 1, Como Website:

Cascina Respau  Website:

Baita Bondella  Via Bel Paese 9, Como Website:  Tel: +39 031 220307l:

Baita Boletto, Via Bel Paese Como Tel: +39 031 220235

Baita Monte Goj, via alla Zocca 33 Albate CO Website:  Tel: +39 349 104.64.82


Sorsasso, Via Gaggio 1, Domaso Website:  Tel: +39 0344 910022

Cantine Angelinetta  Via Pozzolo 16 Website:  Tel: +39 0344.490095


La Vecchia Como, Via Lambertenghi 35, Como Tel: +39 031 26 19 79


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Lake Como’s Beaches ‘Excellent’ – and that’s official!


Most of Lake Como’s beaches are classed as ‘excellent’ 

Nothing can beat a dip in cool lake or river waters on a hot summer afternoon – and nowhere can look so inviting as one of the many beaches on Lake Como. BUT is the water really as welcoming as it looks? The short answer is yes, in the vast majority of cases not only are the beaches approved for swimming but they have been classified as ‘excellent’. And it is the Italian State Ministry of Health that says so as a result of constant monitoring over the summer season of beaches not only on the coast but also for freshwater locations like Lake Como.

Lake ComoHowever it pays to check the details just in case you select the only beach on the Como leg of the lake closed temporarily due to unacceptable levels of microbial pollutants. So this is definitely a good news story reinforcing the progress made in recent years to improve water quality. Even Varese’s lido on Lake Schiranna is now classified as ‘excellent’ which is no mean achievement for a lake without any major outlet and surrounded by both urban and agricultural development.

Beaches on the western shore

Let’s take a closer look at the beaches in the lower half of the lake on the Como leg by starting in Como itself. We should match our expectations to the fact that Como is a sizable town with a slightly dysfunctional history behind its water purification infrastructure (nothing too alarming but certainly noticeable as a musky scent emanating from the purification plant on Via Innocenzo XI in warm weather).

Tempio Voltiano

Bathers enjoy the water at the Tempio Voltiano – one of the few locations which I would NOT recommend!

The positive news is that the water quality is improving year on year and, as with last year, the lido in Villa Olmo has again been certified safe for swimming. The classification is however a modest ‘satisfactory’. This is the only beach in Como tested and measured by the state although they are considering the feasibility of including the beach at the Tempio Voltiano and the lido in Viale Geno within the monitoring programme next year.  I would personally avoid swimming off the Tempio Voltiano due to its proximity to the mouth of the River Cosia which carries output from the purification plant into the lake.


The fountain on Viale Geno. The nearby lido is a much safer location for swimming than near to the fountain.

The lido in Viale Geno is just down the road from the HQ of Como Nuoto where members swim happily in the lake as well as in the swimming pool and where they recently organised a competition for professional swimmers to cross the lake to Cernobbio from there. If the water is clean enough for them, I am sure it is good enough for those on the banks of the lido one hundred metres away.

The Ministry of Health (Ministero della Salute) test the water for two particular microbes originating from human or animal waste. They are Enterococci and E-Coli (Escherichia Coli). Safety levels are standard across the European Union. Check out their website (only in Italian unsurprisingly) to look up the status of beaches across the whole of Italy.


Villa Olmo

The scorecard at the start of the 2018 season for the lido at Villa Olmo as monitored by the Italian Ministry of Health.

Leaving Como and going up the west side of the lake, the next beach to be tested is the one on the border of Cernobbio within the old trotting track in the grounds of Villa Erba. This also passed with a ‘satisfactory’ classification. I am not sure exactly how accessible this beach is given that the gates to the trotting track are often closed but maybe volunteers provide access over the summer. If so, this is a great location just on the edge of Como.

Villa Erba

The view back towards Como from the garden of Villa Erba. The public beach is to the right of this view after the landing stage.

The next beach is the lido at Moltrasio where the water here is classified as ‘excellent’.  If visiting the Clooneys in Laglio, you are unlikely to be visiting the very attractive public beach at Riva del Tenciù which is just as well since it is closed this season due to the nearby construction work on the lakefront. Brienno has a great beach accessed through the Parco Pubblico. This is classified one down from excellent as ‘good’.


The clear blue ‘excellent’ waters of Argegno

Argegno’s lido is ‘excellent’. Lenno’s lido is also ‘excellent’. Lenno’s Spiaggia San Giorgio is also approved for swimming but classified as ‘new’ presumably since it lacks historical data. Moving on to Tremezzo, its beach in the Parco Teresio Olivelli is approved for swimming but also is classified as ‘new’.  Meanwhile the beach at Torrente Bolvedro is ‘excellent’.


Laglio’s lovely beach is closed this year due to construction work nearby on the lake.

New’ crops up twice as a classification of approved beaches in Menaggio, – the Spiaggia Cantone and the Spiaggia Lerai. The Menaggio lido is classified as ‘excellent’.

Beaches from Como to Bellagio


Como’s lakefront

Leaving Como on the winding road to Bellagio, the first beach to be tested is the Lido Riva at Faggeto Lario which gains an ‘excellent’ as also does the Rosina at Nesso. However at Lezzeno there is the only beach in our list with a temporary ban on swimming due to effluent levels. This is the Spiaggia Rivabella Crotto. Not to worry though since the other two beaches in Lezzeno – Bognana and Spiaggia Salice – are both approved for swimming and classed as ‘excellent’.  Finally at Bellagio, the jewel of the lake, the beaches at La Punta and Rivetto are both classed as ‘excellent’. See our recent article on E-Biking in Bellagio to get some idea of the beauty of this place.

We haven’t touched on the great beaches to be found above Menaggio or those on the Lecco leg of the lake but there are some great locations for swimming in both areas and you can always use the Ministry of Health website to check on their water quality.


The marvellous beach at Rezzonico – one of the many beaches to the north of Menaggio or on the Lecco leg that are not covered in this article.

So to summarise, out of twenty beaches, one was closed due to construction and another temporarily due to pollution. Of the eighteen remaining, two were classed as satisfactory, one as good, four as new and the eleven remaining as excellent. All in all, a positive set of figures reassuring me for one that I will have no hesitation in taking a dip whenever the water beckons.  My favourite location for wild swimming is Lake Montorfano just to the south of Como. Both this and the equally calm and peaceful Lake Pusiano on the road to Erba are both classified positively. With the heat now building up nicely, the lake(s) could not be more inviting.


Lake Pusiano – with Mount Resegone in the background. Lakes Pusiano and Montorfano are both approved for swimming.

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E-Biking Food Tour in Bellagio – All Gain, No Pain

View of Bellagio

Bellagio ‘the pearl of the lake ‘ – viewed from San Giovanni

I am convinced – e-bikes are the ideal means of transport around Lake Como. It’s taken just the one experience on an e-biking tour buzzing up and down the hills surrounding Bellagio to prove it to me beyond question.


Electric Mountain Bikes from Como Lago Bike based at the Hotel Perlo Panorama

E-bikes (electric motor-assisted pedalling) are, as far as I know, ecologically virtuous. Their negative emissions (and lack of noise) make them preferable to scooters, mopeds or motorbikes. In any case, they are much more flexible than any of those other motorised two-wheelers. On an e-bike you can nip up or down footpaths, over shallow steps, on old cobbled mule tracks, or on an electric mountain bike (E-MTB), on mountain paths and off-piste. All this was proven to me on a three-hour food and e-bike tour around Bellagio, the so-called Pearl of Lake Como. It was organised by Lake Como Food Tours who partner with Como Lago Bike to offer this unique opportunity for discovering those areas of Bellagio you would never get to discover on foot and which you would be hard pressed to access by car.

logoAs a keen advocate of slow tourism, slow food and ecological sensitivity, I was very happy to be the guest of Lake Como Food Tours since they aspire to similar values. It is a Lecco-based organisation run by two women who combine their love of local culinary delights by providing them within stunning lakeside settings for the pleasure of  their guests from around the world. Como Lago Bike is based, appropriately enough for cycle specialists, half way up the gruelling hill climb out of Bellagio that eventually ends up at the cycling museum and sanctuary at Madonna del Ghisallo.

Terrace Hotel Perlo

View from the terrace of the Hotel Perlo Panorama – the starting point for our e-bike tour

This ascent which, alongside the nearby and equally difficult Muro di Sormano, often features in the Giro d’Italia and the Giro di Lombardia. It attracts die-hard cyclists from around the world. Many equip themselves with professional road bikes from Como Lago Bike and also stay at the cycling hotel, Hotel Perla Panorama, within which the bike shop is based. However those on the e-bike tour have no need to feel the strain on heart and limbs as Alberto, our guide, or Carlo, the hotel manager, will transport you up the hill from the Bellagio lakefront or from anywhere else nearby for that matter.

Terrace Hotel Perlo 1

Looking down on Bellagio from the justly-named Hotel Perlo Panorama

Having taken in the glorious view from the hotel, we were kitted out at the bike store with helmets, water and instructions on how to operate the bikes. There is definitely a technique to operating an e-bike based on co-ordinating the two variables (engine power, and gears) to best suit your pedalling speed. We started off downhill just requiring a steady hand on the disk brakes but, as we made our way to our first stop in Limonta, we were all soon using the power assistance  to iron out the uphill climbs. It wasn’t just the exhilaration of being freed from uphill effort that hit me but also the reminder of why cycling is such a positive way of travelling with exposure to the varied scents of thyme and acacia on the road with the sun on the face and the breeze on bare arms.

The e-bike tour takes in those locations most people either don’t know exist or don’t have the time or means to discover. Alberto seemed to know every hidden corner of Bellagio and he first led us over the headland and through the narrow streets of Visgnola (1) to descend down onto the start of the Lecco leg of the lake to the small port of Limonta (2).


Celia Abernethy of Lake Como Style on the dock at Limonta. Point 2 on the map.

Here wealthy villas share a view over the broad convergence of the lake’s two legs to the north and across to Varenna. Straight ahead of us was the forbidding mountain range called the Grigne standing in sharp contrast to the lush semi-tropical vegetation on our side. This leg of the lake contrasts clearly in character from the Como side. Here the waters aren’t churned up by the ferries, water taxis and the whole variety of boats plying between Bellagio, Tremezzo and Menaggio. Here the lake stays calm. We stopped off to appreciate the view further along happy to just stare down mesmerised for a few moments by the tranquility of the still clear water.

Towards Varenna

View from Bellagio towards Varenna on the calm leg of the lake.

Alberto had a delightful surprise for us next as we made our way carefully down a steep path to an isolated sanctuary on the waterfront known as the Madonna del Moletto (3).


Madonna del Moletto. Point 3 on the map

This is a true little gem and the perfect spot for a private picnic and a swim in the clear waters. Before returning up the path, we were advised to set gears to their lowest and power assistance to the maximum. Then, on a simple turn of the pedals, we were off shooting up the steep slope seemingly effortlessly.

Sanctuary 1

The clear waters at the Madonna del Moletto looking over to the Grigne mountain range to the left and the Corni di Canzo on the right

After this delightful moment of solitude we rejoined the numerous visitors milling along Bellagio’s main street (4) above the lakefront passing by the stark but impressive 11th Century Romanesque church of San Giacomo which contains some fine stone carving by the Maestri Comacini (see Como’s Artistic Tradition – A Pan-European Legacy: Maestri Comacini for further information on the rich artistic tradition of Como stonemasons). We continued onward to the most northerly point of Bellagio and the so-called Lario Triangle – La Punta (5).

la punta

La Punta – the northern most point of Bellagio and the Lario Triangle.

By this time I had truly mastered the e-bike technique. I no longer viewed oncoming hills with foreboding – I just upped the power assist guiltlessly as I maintained a constant level of effort on the pedals.

la pergola

The dining terrace of the Hotel Ristorante La Pergola at Pescallo.

Pescallo (6), another of Bellagio’s small quarters or ‘frazioni’, was our next destination. We saw some early diners sitting out on the terrace of the ‘La Pergola’ restaurant which juts out over the lake. Here again back on the Lecco-side of the lake, the waters were calm and the views serene. I also earmarked this spot as somewhere to return to, and having been told that the restaurant serves one of the best ‘risotto al pesce persico’, I vowed that one day I would also sit out on that unique terrace soaking in the scene and trying out their version of that delightfully delicate and creamy Lake Como speciality.

darsene di loppia

The terrace of the Darsene di Loppia restaurant looking over the small port in Loppia

We now put our e-bike riding skills to a true test as we went up amongst the old streets of Aureggio (7) to then descend a mule path with shallow steps to cross over to the west-side of the town above the gardens of the Villa Melzi. This was just another aspect of Bellagio that one would never normally get to experience and it was all going to convince me that Bellagio had so much more to it than I had previously assumed. However it was not over yet since we threaded our way around the villa’s gardens to arrive at the small port of Loppia (8) with another delightfully located restaurant – the Ristorante Darsene di Loppia. Again my appetite was being sharpened by further confirmation from colleagues that the food here was excellent and matched the beauty of the location – a winning combination. Also Loppia is just at the southern end of the Villa Melzi  and so would make an ideal starting or finishing point for a visit to the villa’s stupendous gardens.  If coming by boat from Menaggio or Tremezzo, you could also descend at San Giovanni (9) – our next and final destination.

alberto and celia

Alberto Elli. our guide from Como Lago Bike with Celia Abernethy from Lake Como Style.

This small port in front of a piazza which houses the church of San Giovanni is so much quieter than Bellagio itself but visitors could descend here and take a delightful walk to Loppia, through the gardens of the Villa Melzi to arrive at the promenade leading into the centre of Bellagio. However for us San Giovanni housed another attraction – Nenè Food. This is where we stopped for an aperitif and to taste some of the cheeses from Lario and the nearby culinary hotspot – the Valtellina. Nenè Food is another of those Bellagio hidden corners waiting to be discovered – small, intimate, and welcoming.

nene food

Prosecco and spuntino – a welcome restoration at the end of the tour

The aperitif and ‘spuntino’  were most welcome since it would be wrong to convey the impression that e-biking does not require any effort. You have to keep pedalling. The power assistance stops the moment when you stop pedalling. You can of course select the level of assistance but you are still cycling and exercising. Therefore  you should feel no guilt in enjoying a glass or two at the end of the tour.


The e-biking tour is organised by Lake Como Food Tours.    They are contactable by email at    or by phone at +39 349 5600603

Lake Como Food Tours partner with Como Lago Bike who provide the e-bikes and the guide for this tour.  They are contactable by email at  or by phone at +39 031 950 229. Their address is Via Valassina 180, Bellagio

Como Lago Bike are located at the bike hotel called Hotel Perlo Panorama, offering active, cultural or romantic breaks. They are contactable by email at  or by phone at +39 031 950 229. Their address is Via Valassina 180, Bellagio

For more general info on other bike hotels, go to or

Our aperitif was hosted by Nenè Bellagio Food in Via Jacopo Rezia, 20. Bellagio.

The two restaurants which attracted my attention during the tour were:

  1. Hotel Ristorante La They are contactable by email at  or by phone at +39 031 950263
  2. Ristorante Darsene di They are contactable by email at or by phone at +39 031 952 069

E-Bikes are now available for hire from shops around Lake Como from Malgrate near to Lecco to Como and Cernobbio. Check out our Bike pages for more information.

Bike Hire

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Through Conflict to Collaboration, Achille Grandi, Como and the Birth of the Republic

Republic Day Ceremony

Crowds gather in Piazza Cavour before the start of Como’s Remembrance Day Ceremony

Republic Day is celebrated on June 2nd each year to commemorate the referendum result back in 1946 which abolished the monarchy and set in motion the drawing up of a constitution for the First Italian Republic.

Flag Republic Day

Raising the tricolor flag of the Republic as the Corpo Musicale Albatese play the national anthem.

In Como there was the traditional gathering of all the representatives from civic entities and associations for a ceremony starting with the raising of the republican tricolor followed by recognition of those citizens from the Province receiving civic awards and the distribution of copies of the constitution to all those reaching 18 years and thus now able to vote. In spite of the numerous crises and obvious shortcomings or errors of the Italian political class since the Second World War, there is every reason to be exceedingly proud of the achievements of the solid anti-fascist alliance established from 1943 onward which worked collaboratively across political party lines firstly to overthrow nazifascism and then to draw up that first constitution for a democracy based on universal suffrage.

That anti-fascist alliance achieved two major milestones back on June 2nd 1946. The first was the referendum in which the majority elected to abolish the monarchy since as an institution it had done little to protect the country from the disaster caused by the fascist regime. The second was to vote for a constituent assembly whose one objective was to define a new constitution for the newly-born republic.

Musicians Republic Day

Members of the Corpo Musicale Albatese.

The assembly maintained the cross-party collaboration to deliver a constitution approved with a massive majority and enacted on 1st January 1948. In the space of the three years following the anti-fascist alliance born after the Nazi occupation of Northern Italy in September 1943, the partisan and worker organisations had restored pride to a country that had suffered brutal oppression and had been reduced to bankruptcy with mass unemployment and widespread poverty. That pride stemmed from the actions of the armed resistance supported by a heroic civil population and a vanguard of workers who had the foresight to plan for a life after fascism by weakening the Nazi war economy whilst also ensuring that the industrial infrastructure was not destroyed by the retreating German Army.

Carabiniere Republic Day

Carabiniere on parade

The class of industrial owners had mostly been compromised by their collaboration with the nazifascist regime even though many of them like the Agnelli family of FIAT fame had started to hedge their bets when they saw the tide turning after the Battle of Stalingrad. However the workers’ organisations, which had all been suppressed during the fascist regime, arose again following the allied advance in the south and it was out of the trades union movement that the three emerging political parties – the Socialists (PSI), the Communists (PCI) and the Catholics (DC) – signed the Pact of Rome in June 1944. This pact secured the impetus and coherence behind the Committee for National Liberation (CLN) and its campaigns of armed and civil resistance in the north. The key role of the communists in this resistance with their ability to organise shop floor action as well as sustain their Garibaldi Brigades of partisans is perhaps the best known party in this triumvirate. Much less is known of some of the other players in the resistance such as the Royalists or, more significantly, the Catholics. The recently formed Catholic political organisation (Christian Democrats) was one of the three signatories to the Pact of Rome and it was the majority party within the Constituent Assembly established on June 2nd 1946 to produce the new constitution having won 207 seats whilst the Socialists gained 115 and the Communists got 104.

Achille Grandi

Achille Grandi

How the Catholics managed to come out of the war in such a strong position with a solid base both within the bourgeoisie but, more significantly for the resistance, within a radicalised working class, is partly down to the ability of a particularly skillful political and trades union organiser who happened to be from Como – Achille Grandi.


Achille Grandi’s Early Years

Achille was born the first of four children to Romualdo and Olimpia Cavadini in Como in August 1883. Como was primarily an industrial town in that period which had experienced a massive growth in the silk and textile industry from the 1860s onwards. However those working in the mills had a very hard life with working days of over 12 hours, with little concern for worker safety and only the basic local forms of representation to try and negotiate better terms from the factory owners. In addition, during the period when Achille was growing up, the local spinning industry was suffering a downturn due to competition from France causing wage reductions and redundancies amongst the spinners. Achille’s family was poor. His father was unemployed for long periods and he himself was forced to leave school aged eleven to take up work in 1894 in a Como printing factory. He was not a strong boy and he soon started to suffer from the principle health risk in printing works – lead poisoning.

Volunteers Republic Day

Volunteers on parade at the Republic Day ceremony.

His Inspiration

Given his religious upbringing and the direct experience of the hardships caused by the spread of industrialism with all the advantages accruing to the capitalist class with not a single aspect of social legislation passed to improve working conditions, it was no surprise that Achille was inspired by the Rerum Novarum issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891. This encyclical highlighted the need for the church to define and implement a social policy recognising the rights of workers to form unions to ameliorate their work conditions and denouncing unfettered capitalism alongside atheistic socialism. Achille took inspiration from  this and joined the early local union known as the Federation of Workers which was however aligned to the increasingly socialist-oriented ‘Camera del Lavoro’ but there was no other syndicalist option at that time. He then sought to educate himself on the catholic social doctrine laid out by Pope Leo as well as get training on trades union and co-operative organisation through his local church at the Circolo Popolare Cattolico di San Bartolomeo.

San Bartolomeo

Church of San Bartolomeo, Via Milano, Como

From Como Diocese to Local Politics

At only 18 years old Achille became a member of the Como Diocese Committee and six years later he became a salaried member of the Diocesan Management. This salary proved very convenient since he had had to give up his job in the print factory due to the effects of the lead poisoning. His role was as ‘segretario propagandista’ making use of his organisational and communication skills across activities that ranged from education, women’s rights to assisting immigrants from the south but his main focus was on political and union work.

Banners Republic Day

Comune banners are processed into the ceremony in Piazza Cavour.

His difficulties in getting on with the socialist-led union – the Camera del Lavoro – led him into developing a Catholic alternative known as  the Lega Cattolica di Lavoro directed at improving working conditions. Whilst he always tried to work alongside the socialist-run unions, he often ran into issues preventing effective collaboration. Socialist doctrine was based on Marxist theory of class conflict whilst Achille believed that collaboration between the classes would best improve workers’ conditions. By 1908, Achille was able to establish the first national catholic trades union known as the Sindacato Italiano Tessile (SIT -Textile Workers Union). The socialists also formed their first national union in the same year – the Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL).

Catholic attitudes to politics had always been problematic in Italy ever since Pope Pius IX excommunicated all members of the newly-formed Italian government which had sequestered the Papal States and moved its capital from Turin to Rome in 1871. However Pope Pius X recognised in 1904 that attempts by Catholics to further the church’s social doctrine as laid out by Leo XIII would also require participation in politics in order to protect whatever gains they made. He therefore gave a tacit approval for church members to enter into politics. Achille also appreciated how political activity was crucial to securing whatever social advances the unions were able to negotiate. So he entered politics as a Como town councilor in 1908, thus becoming one of the first Catholics to enter politics without the threat of papal excommunication. However his entry into politics was to reveal a marked difference between his social-christian approach and the more cautious attitudes of the Diocese. These differences led finally to total disagreement which led on to his dismissal from his Diocese role in 1913. In spite of these differences. Achille always maintained his course of keeping faith with the church whilst also continuing to fight for social justice.

Alpini Republic Day

Two Alpini regiment veterans relax before the start of the ceremony.

Move to Monza

After his dismissal from the Como Diocese, Achille immediately got an offer to move to Monza to take up the post of Secretary of the Monza branch of the Lega Cattolica del Lavoro and as director of another worker organisation known as the Opere Cattoliche Monzesi. He still held firm to his Leo XIII-inspired ‘third way’ attitude that social injustices, disorder and conflict stemmed from the dechristianisation of society either due to the rationalist liberalism of the rich or the anticlerical socialism of the poor. The Rerum  Novarum of 1891 remained his inspiration and fueled his belief that trades unionism could bring the two industrial sides together.

Ceremony Republic Day

The ceremony continues under the Republican flag.

After The Great War

The brutality and inhumanity of the war led to a Marxist revolution in Russia and the death of the ruling liberal elite in Italy. Out of the social confusion with the growth of the socialists, a Catholic political party (the Partito Popolare Italiano – PPI) was born for the first time under the leadership of Don Luigi Sturzo in 1919. Achille was one of the founder members. He was also made President of the national Textile Workers Union (SIT) and was also a founding member of the first national general catholic union – The Confederazione Italiana dei Lavoratori  (CIT).


Comunes of Domaso and Menaggio parade their banners at the Republic Day ceremony

In 1919 he was returned as a member of parliament for the list representing Milan in elections that could have seen the first progressive workers government take control if the Socialists had only been prepared to collaborate with the PPI or if the Socialists’ Trades Union (CGL) had collaborated with the Catholics’ CIT.  However the Marxist doctrine of the CGL at that time was fixated on the notion of class conflict whilst the CIT saw inter-class collaboration as the best route to social justice. Later Marxist thinkers such as Gramsci or Togliatti might have been more sympathetic to the PPI and the CIT but it was not to be in those early days of class conflict.


in the 1920s Italy never had recovered economically after the Great War and, faced with ever greater economic turmoil matched by growing industrial unrest, the emerging fascist party took the opportunity to provoke and exploit social disorder so as to present themselves as the authoritarian answer to Italy’s issues. Unfortunately the socialists were out-manoeuvred and many Catholics who had previously supported the PPI were attracted to the appeal  the fascists made to restore social order. The majority of the party thus voted in favour of Mussolini’s government in 1922 but Achille Grandi was one party member who voted against. He was henceforth seen as a potential enemy of the state and kept under police surveillance from that time on.

Visitor Republic Day

Visitors take advantage of soldiers on parade to request portrait pictures to show back home.

In 1922 Achille became Secretary General of the Confederazione Italiana dei Lavoratori (CIL), the national catholic trades union. In the same year Pope Pius XI took over as Pope from Pope Benedict XV. Achille’s trades union was now under attack on two fronts. Firstly Pope Pius XI was not comfortable with the church’s involvement in politics and in social welfare matters. He sought to focus all Catholic laity activity within one organisation, Azione Cattolica, and then to get Azione Cattolica to focus only on spiritual concerns. The PPI thus became increasingly irrelevant and Achille focused ever more of his attention on the CIL union and on trying to forge closer links with the other unions. However, as the fascist hold on power increased, their level of threat and intimidation to the unions increased. Finally in 1925 the fascists declare that the only union that could legally represent workers was the fascist union. Azione Cattolica were happy to accept this but Achille was not. He now had to decide how to react to the imposition of the fascist totalitarian regime and his choice, like many others, was to adopt what has been called ‘internal exile’, that is preferring to go back into obscurity rather than continue a public life of humiliating compromises. So he returned to work in a print shop but retained secret links with some of his former trades unionists such as Giovanni Gronchi, also from Como (from Montano Lucino to be precise) who in later years was to lead the left wing of the post-war Christian Democrats and serve as President of the Republic from May 1955 to May 1962.

Comune mayors gather

The mayors of the comunes within the Province of Como dressed with their sashes of office gather at the start of the Republic Day ceremony

Years of Obscurity

Achille’s wife, Maria, recalled how Achille would often meet up with ex-union colleagues such as Giovanni Gronchi during that hard period of fascist oppression to discuss what to do after fascism collapsed. They all appreciated that fascism was doomed to ultimate failure but Achille also regretted how fascism was only able to prevail in those early years of the 1920s due to the failure of the progressive parties and organisations of the left to coordinate an effective opposition. The same realisation obviously occurred to the socialists, and of greater significance now, also to the Communists who had established an effective power base within the factories and amongst the workers in cities like Milan and Turin – and who, after the Nazi occupation in September 1943, provided the political inspiration and leadership behind the largest group of armed partisans, the so-called Garibaldi Brigades.

Before the ceremony

Piazza Cavour

The Anti-Fascist Alliance

In July 1943, the king dismissed Mussolini’s government and the majority of Mussolini’s ministers failed to support him. Fascism was for a brief period over and the government was put into the hands of an ex-fascist army general, Badoglio, who was as an inept a politician as he was a soldier. However an armistice with the allies was signed which immediately provoked the Nazi occupation of the northern part of Italy and the restoration by Hitler of Mussolini as head of the puppet Socialist Republic of Italy (RSI). In the meantime Pope Pius XI who had been discouraging the catholic laity in organising for anything other than spiritual reasons, died in 1939. Achille could now re-emerge from obscurity and in fact Badoglio invited him in July 1943 to take up the position of Commissioner for the Confederation of Agricultural Workers. (Due to the history of failure to revise feudal land tenure rights, agricultural workers formed one of the most militant sections of the Italian working class at that time.)

Swords and shades

The lifting of the ban on trades unionism was soon to lead to the historic signing of the Pact of Rome in June 1944 when representatives of the Socialists (Emilio Canevari), the Communists (Giuseppe Di Vittorio) and Achille for the Christian Democrats signed the agreement to work together in support of the Committee for National Liberation (CLN) to defeat fascism. Achille had finally seen his faith in collaboration over conflict confirmed. The other significant outcome of the Pact of Rome was the formation of a single national trades union representing all workers irrespective of any political doctrine – the CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana dei Lavoratori). This cross-party collaboration within a single trades union was to endure until 1948, well after the establishment of the Republic and the enactment of the new constitution. With this new union in place, Achille recognised there was a need for a specifically catholic workers organisation to give catholic unionists a solid understanding of the church’s social doctrine so as to allow them to articulate their views within the consolidated union’s forums. Hence he became a founding member and the first president of ACLI (the Christian Association of Italian Workers) – an organisation still going strong to this day. He was then elected to parliament in the elections of 1946 as a Christian Democrat but was to die only two months later at the age of 63 in his home in Desio, a town close to Monza and just north of Milan.

in the partisan mountains

Localita Boffalora – the mountains above Lenno where the partisan groups under the command of royalist partisan leader Capitano Ricci gathered prior to attempting the assassination of the RSI Finance Minister residing in the hotel on the lakeshore.

Achille Grandi was to see his faith in cross-party collaboration come to fruition within the singularly effective anti-fascist alliance established in 1944. Not only was he a central player in setting up that alliance, but his pragmatic approach, partly in denial of the Marxist dialectic of class conflict, was also effectively adopted by the Communist Party leader Palmiro Togliatti on his return from Russia. Later, as peacetime progressed, some Communists may rightly have come to question whether such a degree of collaboration with the capitalist class was always tactically appropriate but few can doubt its initial success. From 1943 until the setting up of the Republic, the three main parties worked together to restore pride in the country and put it back on a path to recovery from the degradation and bankruptcy of the war years. For me, not only do I find inspiring the collaboration forged within that anti-fascist alliance, but also the story of Achille himself, his tenacity in self-educating and directing his gifted organisational talents and the fact that there were at least some channels back then for some talented but socially disadvantaged people to progress.

The Partisan battle above the lake

Val D’Intelvi – the area patrolled by Capitano Ricci and his royalist and catholic-oriented partisan band. Ricci got funding support from Allen Dulles and the American OSS offices in Lugano just across the border.

Nowadays the Republic Day celebrations may appear somewhat anachronistic, an excuse for local dignitaries and state functionaries to don sparkling dress uniforms for another opportunity for self-congratulation, but the heart of this celebration lies in history and, specifically in the sacrifices and efforts made by those of Achille’s generation in rescuing the country from the depths of degradation and inhumanity inflicted during the fascist era. To quote the anti-fascist University professor and politician Piero Calamandrei:

‘If you want to go on a pilgrimage to the place where our Constitution was created go to the mountains where the partisans fell, to the prisons where they were incarcerated and to the fields where they were hanged. Wherever an Italian died to redeem freedom and dignity, go there young people and ponder because that was where our Constitution was born.’

The Constitution that Achille contributed towards has essentially survived to this day with some elements revised and others, unfortunately, never fully implemented but the one lasting legacy codified in its pages is the Italian State’s commitment to anti-fascism, and long may that last beyond the span of living memory.

Achille Grandi 2

Achille Grandi, 1883 – 1946


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Parco Spino Verde: Walking the Border back to Como

This article has now been moved to Parco Spino Verde: Walking the Border Back to Como


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Como’s Artistic Tradition – A Pan-European Legacy: Maestri Comacini

Sant Abbondio

The paired bell towers of the Basilica Sant’Abbondio in Como – Romanesque masterpiece of the Maestri Comacini.

Como is a city of art and culture built up over centuries of tradition originating from the advanced bronze age culture of the Golasecca.  The Golasecca lived in the area known as Insubria that includes Como, its and the other Lombardy lakes and a good part of the Swiss Canton Ticino. At certain periods in history, the area has produced ‘schools’ of artists and artisans who have achieved pan-European significance. The most recent were the so-called ‘Artisti dei Laghi’ who, as painters, sculptors and craftsman in other decorative arts, left their mark in churches and palaces across Italy and Europe, with possibly their best-known landmark being the Ludwigsburg Palace designed by Donato Frisoni (born in Laino near Como) and built for Duke Ludwig in 1733.


Ludwigsburg Palace

Interior – Ludwigsburg Palace 

Yet they in turn would have gained some inspiration from a tradition in masonry, sculpture and stone carving emanating also from the area of Insubria – the so-called ‘Maestri Comicini’. These artists and artisans helped develop and spread the Romanesque style of religious building across Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries.

Roman carving - Museo Archeologico

Carved marble denoting the good life for young Como residents in the Roman era – a day out hunting, in the Museo Archeologico.

So let’s focus on this early group of artist/artisans to understand more about what they achieved. Como was established by Julius Caesar and from the start it appears that the ‘Comacini’ had a talent for stone sculpture.  Pliny the Younger had a summer villa built on the site of the current Villa Pliniana and he cited the ‘most excellent work’ of the Como builders in a letter to the Emperor Trajan.

Moltrasio Mines

Sentee di Sort – Ex-limestone quarries above Moltrasio.

They were of course aided by the natural advantages of the area, as in the supply of Moltrasio limestone used extensively for building due to its unique strength yet ease of working. It also formed natural strata which made extraction and cutting into regular shape that much easier.


Multi-coloured marble facing of the Broletto, Piazza Duomo

Black limestone and marble were available from Varenna and white marble from Musso – hence so many two-shaded facades to Como buildings. Como was also well placed for communications on one of the main ancient north-south axes in Europe on the Rhine branch of the Via Francigena crossing the Alps at Splugen thus providing a link from Rome through Milan, to Como and then Chiavenna on up into Northern Europe.

The Lombard invasion of Italy secured a role for the Maestri Comacini as preservers of the Roman building and stone masonry skills. Little building was done by the Lombards until the 7th century when Queen Teodolinda converted to Christianity and started an extensive building programme led by the Maestri Comacini in Monza, Milan and, primarily in the Lombard capital, Pavia. The first formal mention of the Maestri Comacini comes in a text written by the Lombard king Rothair in 643 CE. By this stage, they were formally licensed as a guild and given the right and protection to travel as itinerant craftsmen.

They took as their early inspiration the iconography from both pagan Lombard sources and early Christianity. Many of their interlacing geometric stonework designs are reminiscent of Celtic work. Additionally they portrayed mythical monsters and symbolic beasts.


Frieze Sant Abbondio

Maestri Comacini work on the exterior of the Basilica Sant’ Abbondio.

A German musicologist,  Marius Schneider, has gone so far as to suggest that the repetitive patterns and mythical designs of the maestri incorporated a form of musical annotation encrypting the Gregorian chants dedicated to their patrons.

One design oddity is the development by these maestri of the so-called ‘nodo comacino’ as a carved device around a single or multiple columns performed to show off the dexterity of the stonemason. Examples of this can be seen  on the east side of the Broletto in Como’s Piazza Duomo.

As time progressed they developed a ‘Romanesque’ style of stone decoration with main examples of their work still visible on the exteriors of the Romanesque churches San Fedele (built 1120 CE) and Sant’Abbondio (rebuilt between 1050 and 1095 CE). They worked on one of the very first Romanesque buildings, the Baptistry of St. John at Galliano near Cantu (built 1007) and also on the church of Sant’ Ambrogio in Milan.

Further stimulus to work abroad occurred after 775 CE when  Charlemagne defeated the Lombards in Pavia and thus encouraged the stonemasons to look at the opportunities beyond the Alps.  Their fame spread abroad as testified by Archbishop Aribo of Mainz (known as Magonza)  when he passed through and subsequently died in Como on his return from a pilgrimage to Rome in 1031. He took the opportunity to seek out Maestri Comacini to work on rebuilding his cathedral in Northern Germany.

Detail of Mainz Cathedral, Germany

Mainz Cathedral

Certainly by 1050, Maestri Comacini were working north of the River Danube. Their fame would extend up the old pilgrim route up the Rhine  for them to undertake commissions in Denmark and Sweden.

Bell tower San Fedele

Bell Tower of the Basilica San Fedele, Como

The whole area around Lake Como is rich in churches built in the Romanesque style dating back to the times of the Maestri Comacini. They may not have been the only exponents of this style but the wide diffusion of their skills across Europe certainly led to them having a primary role in the widespread adoption of this style of architecture on a truly pan-European basis from Sicily to Sweden and from Spain to Russia. Local historian, Marco Lazzati is prepared to state: ‘After the Latin language and the spread of Christianity, the first ‘Euro’ to circulate in Europe and to thus partly contribute to unifying its culture was the Maestro Comacino .’

nodo comacino

Eastern exterior of the Broletto, Como. Nodo Comacino – a technique developed by the Maestri Comacini showing off their abilities.

Their ability to circulate was originally granted by the safe passage accorded members of the ‘guild’ by the Lombard kings and the church authorities of the time. Very quickly they established an itinerant culture setting up camp alongside (even attached to) the construction sites on which they worked. This not only led to the diffusion of the Romanesque style but also some have claimed it formed the basis of European Freemasonry. Their status in the 12th and 13th centuries was that of ‘liberi muratori’ which can be literally translated as ‘free masons’. The barracks they set up on the building sites were known as ‘logge’ or ‘lodges’. The secrecy associated with freemasonry may stem from the oaths of secrecy taken by members of the masonry guild to not divulge any of the secrets  imparted by the ‘maestri’ (masters) to their apprentices about their trade. In addition, they signed their works by leaving carved symbols with that of the Maestri Comicini being an open compass above a rose.

The artistic merit of the Maestri Comacini may well have been undervalued over the years with the tendency to dismiss them as mere artisans but they were working at a time when ‘art’ was indistinguishable from ‘craft’. The lack of documentation also prevents us from singling out individual master craftsmen but note must be taken of their obvious impact on their environment with the rich legacy of Romanesque structures that populate Lake Como and beyond. Their contribution to this in Como, around the lake, in Lombardy, in Italy and in Europe is outstanding.

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San Donato to Camnago Volta: Opening up a Circular Route to and from Como

This article has now been moved to San Donato to Camnago Volta: Opening up a Circular Route to and from Como

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‘Como Antifascista’ – Then and Now

Hitler and Mussolini in Street Art

Hitler and Mussolini Streetscape Art – 2016, on the Teatro Sociale

Today is Liberation Day – a public holiday celebrating the end of the Second World War in the Nazi-occupied half of Italy. That date seventy three years ago marked the culmination of a two year period following the dismissal of Mussolini when the territory was under the nazifascist regime of the two dictators. It was a tragic but immensely inspiring period when the antifascist alliance of partisans, workers, and others courageously and ultimately successfully defeated totalitarianism and racism. A celebration of their huge contribution in regaining the honour of Italy and laying the foundations of the current democratic constitution was held this morning on the lakeside with wreaths laid at the Monument to European Resistance. The speeches made afterwards stressed the unique  cross-party collaboration in the antifascist alliance whilst the representative from ANPI (National Association of Italian Partisans ) spoke eloquently for ever greater European unification and ongoing  antifascist resistance to combat the increase in both explicit and implicit fascist attitudes and the corresponding growth in racist and nationalist rhetoric.


From 1st to 8th March 1944, the call for a general strike supported by the Committee for National Liberation (CLN) but organised primarily by the Italian Communist Party (PCI) made clear the determination of the workers in the occupied part of the country to stand up to the authorities and to work alongside the partisans’ armed struggle in liberating the country – something they achieved a year later in the general industrial and armed insurrection on April 25th seventy three years ago. Workers in factories in the city and province of Como took an active part in these strikes paying dearly through imprisonment of the organisers and deportation into Nazi labour camps of many others.

Victims of Tintoria Comense 1

Plaque commemorating 4 out of the 6 workers deported to German labour camps following the strike in Tintoria Comense. 3 died in Mauthausen, 1 died shortly after returning to Como due to bad health induced by the prison regime. The other 2 (both women) survived.

On April 25th 1945, at 5.00am the Como workers got up as usual and went to catch the trams out to the factories on the edge of town or in the province. The factory sirens sounded as usual to signal the start of the working day. However leaders of the Como branch of the CLN (Committee for National Liberation) got the trams to wait on standby to ferry the workers back into town since the sirens soon sounded again to start a general strike. The trams thus carried all back for a mass demonstration in Piazza Duomo scheduled for 10.00am. A group of workers were delegated to go up to the De Cristoforis army barracks to arm themselves with seized weapons.  Meanwhile Mussolini on this very same day left Milan which was now witnessing a general insurrection following four days of strike action. He and his wife stayed the night in Como where hostile crowds were gathering. He left the following morning in his bid to escape Italy hidden within a column of retreating German soldiers. (See 25th April Liberation Day – Como’s Role in the Insurrection for details of Mussolini’s flight  from Como). The long war and the even longer period of Italian fascism thus ended – on Liberation Day.

Caserma De Cristoforis

‘De Cristoforis’ Barracks – Como. Now used as a military documentation repository but soon to close.

1943 to the General Strike, 1st March 1944

Yet Italian fascism should have ended on 26th July 1943 when King Vittorio Emanuele III dismissed Mussolini, only to have him re-imposed on the Italians by Hitler on September 8th as head of the puppet state known as the Republic of Salò (RSI – Socialist Republic of Italy). But his government was perceived by many as entirely illegitimate. The invasion by the Germans and the return of Mussolini were conjoined in the word ‘nazifascist’ and so readily rejected maybe because the nationalism nurtured by Italian fascism since 1922 could hardly be reconciled with the country’s occupation by a foreign power. This was just one contradiction too many for fascism to overcome. Opposition to the regime came from all sectors of society – royalists, many Catholics, socialists and most definitely the communists. On September 8th 1943 opposition to German occupation became associated with an opposition to fascism itself. The formation of partisan groups started immediately recruiting the ex-soldiers of the ‘royal’ armed forces. Other ‘royal’ organisations like the border police (Guardia di Finanza) could never be trusted by the nazifascists and even came to be banned from patrolling the Swiss-Italian border outside Como (see Como’s ‘Viaggi della Salvezza’ – In Memory of the Holocaust for more details).

Neri and Gianna

Luigi Canali (Battlename, Capitano Neri) and girlfriend Giuseppina Tuissi (Battlename, Gianna), lovers and partisan members of the 52nd Brigata Garibaldi. Both killed in mysterious circumstances in May 1945 outside of Cernobbio after involvement in the capture of Mussolini.

Industrial unrest had always been present even in the original period of Fascist rule – back in March 1943 a series of strikes under the banner of ‘Peace and Bread’ started out in the FIAT factory in Turin quickly spreading to the heavy industry based in the Milanese suburb of Sesto San Giovanni – in the factories of Falck, Pirelli and Ercole Marelli. By 1944 however, living conditions under the RSI were rapidly deteriorating. The cost of living was forever increasing; reduced working was often imposed due to shortages of raw materials or even due to the lack of coal to generate power or run the trains that were vital in transporting workers to the factories. (Many factories had been relocated out of Milan into the provinces of Como, Lecco and Varese to reduce the risk of damage from the intense allied bombing over the northern cities. The workers thus had to commute from Milan. Como was spared the worst of allied bombing maybe due to the proximity of the Swiss border and the allies’ fears of accidentally bombing a neutral country.)

Piccinelli Mozzate

300 workers went on strike at Ceramiche Piccinelli at Mozzate in January 1944 prior to the General Strike in March.

The PCI (Communist Party) organised strikes in Milan, Genoa and Turin in December of that year seeking wage increases and more generous rationing provision. January 1944 saw a massive increase in prices and a couple of strikes in the Como Province – the first involving 300 workers at Conte Piccinelli Ceramiche in Mozzate and the other involving 600 workers at Filatura di Turate. These were both factories whose workers lived in Milan but were transported out to the Province in a daily commute.

Carabinieri at the Memorial to European Resistance, Como Liberation Day, 2018.png

Carabinieri at the Memorial to European Resistance, Como – Liberation Day, 2018

The PCI and the CLN then started to combine the PCI-led industrial action with the CLN’s more general civil and military resistance. They agreed to organise a general strike commencing 1st March 1944 across Liguria, Piedmont and Lombardy. The theme of this agitation was anti-nazi but based on demands for higher wages and better provisions. The welfare of workers and their families was linked to their continuing employment since ration cards were issued through work as well as clothing allowances and, most importantly, one or two meals a day at the factory canteens. Loss of employment did not just mean a loss of wages. The worsening economic situation and the ongoing increase in temporary and permanent redundancies went to fuel increasing militancy within the factories encouraged by the clandestine cells set up by the PCI. The authorities for their part responded with a mixture of repression and a bogus anti-capitalist and anti-bourgeois campaign known as ‘pacificazione sociale’ claiming they would put worker representatives on to management boards. Paolo Porta, the chief fascist ideologue based in Como, made the following press statement in Cantu:

Paolo Porta

Paolo Porta

Fascism will show that it is not the armed guard of wealth and privilege and that the traitors and saboteurs who think themselves invulnerable because they feel protected by wealth, will instead be hit where they are weakest – in their wallets and bank accounts.

However the campaign did not win over the working class. Fascism had lost any form of credibility by this stage and Mussolini’s attempt to restyle himself and his regime as militantly socialist fooled very few.

1st to 8th March 1944

Salmoiraghi e Vigano

HQ in Milan of Salmoiraghi and Vigano, the inheritors of Filotecnica Salmoiraghi which moved out of Milan in 1943 to avoid allied bombing

The strikes began on 1st March and continued until the 8th with their epicentre in Milan where the PCI were at their strongest. The first factories to follow in Como Province had direct links with colleagues back in Milan – such as F.A.C.E. at Grandate where 150 workers stopped work at 14.00 and took the train back to Milan. The next day 400 workers who lived in Milan but worked at the Filotecnica Salmoiraghi in Cantù stopped work. On the same day at the Seriche Italiane at Mariano Comense 700 workers went on strike in solidarity with Milanese colleagues.

Ex-partisan Associations

Ex-partisan Associations, Memorial to European Resistance, Como – Liberation Day 2018

General Strike Activity in and Around Como

On 3rd March 1944, 180 workers at the Cartiera Burgo in Maslianico went on a strike organised by a communist cell that had first led a strike at the factory on 26th July 1943 when they wanted the workers to be free to join a mass rally in Como celebrating the dismissal of Mussolini from government. Two of the March strike organisers were later sent to German labour camps. A division of the factory was later closed down and its machinery moved to Poulz in Austria with the workers told either to move to Austria or be dismissed.

Cartiera Burgo Sit In

‘We leave with heads held high’ – workers abandon a 130 day sit-in against redundancies in October 1969 at Cartiere Burgo

The strikers’ demands, submitted to the fascist authorities against the advice of the PCI organisers, reveal the concerns of the workforce. They were as follows:

  • A 50% increase in wages
  • Preferential ration amounts
  • 500gm of bread per employee
  • An increase in the ‘minestra’ ration
  • A ‘second’ course at the company’s canteen
  • Distribution of the rice allowance
  • Distribution of work clothes and soap
  • No further redundancies particularly of older workers
  • A guarantee to keep the factory open.
Site of Tintoria Castagna

Ex-site of the Tintoria Castagna on Viale Varese

On 6th March 1943 there were stoppages at two silk factories in Como. The first involved 200 workers at the Tintoria Castagna. Leaflets had been circulated the day before advising of the strike and that it was supported by the CLN. The strike started the next day. Three non-communist workers who were found with the leaflets were deported to the German Labour camps of Gusen and Mauthausen. None of them returned alive. The Communist strike organiser was imprisoned for a year.

Chimney of Tintoria Comense Ticosa

Chimney of the ex-Tintoria Comense, subsequently renamed Ticosa and now a derelict site off Viale Roosevelt.

The second strike involved 1500 workers at Como’s largest fabric factory – the Tintoria Comense, later known as Ticosa. This was organised by a communist cell but also with internal assistance. The fate of some of the workers including Ines Figini is told in our article about Ines and her time in Auschwitz Labour Camp. Most of those deported to Germany died in the labour camp of Mauthausen. The two women deportees, Ines and Ada Borgomainerio, both managed to get home. One other worker returned home only to die shortly after due to his poor state of health brought about by the prison regime.


There was also a failed strike in the fabric factory Bruno Pessina off Via Borgo Vico. Again leaflets were brought into the factory by a communist cell member, Enrico Caronti and he initially got a unanimous agreement to strike the next day. However a fervent fascist in the workforce so frightened colleagues with stories of the reprisals that would follow – mass deportation to Germany, imprisonment, loss of rations etc – that the workforce changed its mind.

Tintoria Bruno Pessina

Chimney and site of the ex-Tintoria Bruno Pessina off Via Borgo Vico

Other strikes in the Province included 600 women strikers at Cattaneo Luigi in Rovellasca, at the Orsenigo iron foundry in Mariano Comense and 1000 workers were on strike for five days at Taglietti in Figino Serenza.

The authorities claimed the general strike was an abject failure. The Provincia di Como reported on the 8th March ‘Genesis of an aborted strike – Italian workers, with the exception of a tiny minority, have ignored the call from those agitators in the pay of London and Moscow.’ Yet Hitler was livid and demanded that the authorities send 20% of strikers to German labour camps as a general threat to the working population. This programme of deportation proved impractical due to the strains on the social order it would provoke. Hitler’s Ambassador to the RSI calculated that 20% amounted to 70,000 deportees meaning that by his estimate 350,000 workers had participated in the General Strike. Modern historians estimate the figure at 208,500. In either case, this was a significant act of defiance. In the words of the German historian, Lutz Klinkhammer:

‘it was the greatest mass protest that the occupying forces had to confront; put together without outside help, without arms but with considerable energy and sacrifice. It wasn’t just (alongwith the strikes of 43) the most important strike in Italy over 20 years of fascist rule, it was also the greatest general strike across the whole of Nazi-occupied Europe.’

After the General Strike

Strikes continued after March 1944 particularly against the policy of sending workers to Germany. The number of agitators in the factories grew. On 9th June 1944 a significant pact was signed in Rome between all three of the trades union groups – the communists, the socialists and the Christian Democrats.  This alliance was also intended to co-ordinate industrial action in support of the resistance. The unions organised so-called Squadre di Azione Patriottica (SAP) normally consisting of cross-party cells of 10 politicised workers organised to sabotage production, prevent delivery of goods to the Germans, pass around propaganda and in some instances, to offer military support to the partisans. Other groups organised themselves to provide medicines and provisions for the partisan groups. Strikes continued through October and November 1944 in spite of the law passed on 21st June declaring the death sentence for strike organisers. The level of civil and industrial disobedience grew from the start of 1945 with stoppages becoming ever more frequent and the authorities forced to give way more often than not. And then on April 20th, the Milanese workers started another general strike that was to signal the final insurrection against the nazifascist regime.

Festa della Liberazione - Banda Monte Olimpino

The Banda Filarmonica Monte Olimpino play at the Liberation Day ceremony, Como.

In Milan, on April 25th, Mussolini met with the CLN to discuss surrender terms mediated by Milan’s Cardinal Schuster. He abandoned the talks and fled immediately to Como.  The German army representatives had also that very day signed the armistice in Rome. Como strikers were on the streets and civilians were arming themselves to confront the remaining pockets of fascist resistance. The German army was preparing for their final retreat and surrender. On the following day, Mussolini left hidden in the column of German soldiers making their way up the western shores of the lake possibly to cross the Alps via Splugen or possibly to organise a final stand in the Valtellina. His column was stopped by a group of partisans just outside the town of Dongo. The civil and industrial alliance of communist, socialist, royalist and catholic anti-fascists with their relative partisan groups, had brought the illegitimacy of the fascist puppet-state to its inevitable end. The same spirit of collaboration would fortunately last as long as the drafting of the new Italian constitution enacted in December 1947 but as the rest of the twentieth century testified, for not long after.

schiavi di Hitler

In Memory of Hitler’s Slaves

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Going Slow on Lake Como

Mobilità Dolce

Mobilita Dolce Iubilantes initiative ex-ferrovia Como Varese

Mobilita Dolce Initiative – walking the old railway from Como to Varese encouraging its modification into a cycle path

I am not sure how to translate ‘Mobilità dolce’ other than by ‘soft movement’ in which case, we are living through a spring of soft movement – or, to use a possibly  better-known phrase, a spring of slow tourism. The AMoDo (Alleanza della Mobilità Dolce) has unilaterally declared that the period from 21st March to 21st June be known in Italy as a season of ‘slow’ initiatives. Como Companion is all for ‘slow’ as in ‘slow food’, ‘slow driving’, and whatever else we can imagine should be taken slow but above all ‘slow tourism’.

What Is Slow Tourism?

Certainly it shares some connotations with the original ‘slow’ movement for food and a common purpose in questioning the pressures of the marketplace and the negative effects of commercialisation. Slow tourism is the antithesis of fast or mass tourism in its bid to get us to spend more time to get to know the areas we visit when on holiday. Slow is more than a delightful adjective, it is an attitude!

‘Slow down, you move too fast

You got to make the morning last

Just kicking down the cobble stones

Looking for fun and feelin’ groovy.’

Simon and Garfunkel, 59th Street Bridge Song

Go slow and you gather moss, you absorb, you reflect, you empathise, you connect. A slow tourist has the means and time to engage with the environment and the community he or she is visiting and so you leave with more than a few photographic records of an exotic location. Slow tourism can give you an appreciation of the economic, social, historical, cultural or  environmental elements of where you are – its the form of travel that truly does extend your experience and creates memories that will last for ever.

Super slow

On a recent walk we met an Italo-Swedish couple travelling to and from La Spezia to Sweden with donkeys. An example of super slow travel.

Why Slow Tourism?

But why the need to proselytise it? Partly to counteract the potential harm of mass tourism, and to get people to think beyond the standard tourist destinations. As fellow-expat blogger, Celia Abernethy has reported in the Huffington Post, Italy is having to deal with ‘overtourism’ with nearly 100 million people arriving by air from between January and July last year.


Inlombardia advertising holidays in Lombardy on the sides of a tour bus in front of Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London

If these visitors all keep to the best known sites or towns, (Venice, Rome, Milan etc.) it becomes totally unsustainable. Hence Inlombardia ( the Lombardy Region’s Tourist Agency) are campaigning across Europe to encourage visitors to go beyond Milan to Como, Lecco, Varese, Bergamo, Mantova or Pavia.   Also for economic reasons, towns like Como want to see visitors spend more time here and thus spend more money in the shops, hotels and restaurants rather than having half a day in town, the other half in Bellagio with spending limited to a boat ticket and a slice of pizza for lunch.

Queueing for the boat to Bellagio

Queue for the fast boat to Bellagio, Ferragosto Public Holiday, August 2017

But slow tourism also seeks to counteract the ‘productising’ tendencies of the mass tourist market. This is the tourism equivalent of the trans-fat horrors of fast food. Fast tourism deals in cliché, stereotype, stock images and easily digested non-memories – it takes these shortcuts because there is no time for true engagement or genuine human contact. And it short changes visitors, sometimes in seemingly small ways such as the restaurant on the lakefront here in Como which cannot be bothered to describe its pasta dishes accurately since ‘the visitors don’t know the difference’! But this thankfully rare disrespectful attitude betrays the sterility of fast tourism since it’s a ‘product’ based on a location whose soul or true essence is of no relevance.

Lakeside restaurant

Al fresco dining on the lakefront is massively appealing and the overall quality is more than acceptable but the temptation for the less scrupulously managed establishments is to ignore the need to be genuine or authentic.

Slow tourism instead IS about offering insights into that true essence or the soul of a location – and that is best achieved by going slow – not slow stuck behind a cavalcade of tour buses that get caught up in summer on the narrow lakeside roads around Ossuccio, but slow walking  up Ossuccio’s UNESCO-listed Sacro Monte or traversing the lakefront above the blocked roads on the Greenway or the Strada Regina following mule tracks used for centuries by our antecedents.

Sacro Monte, Ossuccio

The UNESCO-listed Sanctuary at Sacro Monte, Ossuccio behind which is a delightful trattoria.

That is why AMODO and the other associations such as Iubilantes campaign so forcefully to extend the network of cycle paths and to reopen the ancient walkways that characterise our territory, particularly  since we live on a key north-south axis used since Roman times as one of the principal pan-European routes from Mediolanum (Milan) through the Alps over the Splugen Pass and  following the valley of the Rhine.

Slow down 3

Moments of peace and reflection

Fortunately it is very easy to go slow on Lake Como. Associations like Iubilantes provide web sites and apps like CamminaCitta outlining and illustrating short city walks and longer excursions.  Their site states it is:

 A portal in which one seeks to rediscover and celebrate the cultural heritage of our cities combining, as so seldom happens, easy mobility, sustainable tourism and accessibility.

The ultimate goal is to encourage the principle of “good for everyone” and “tourism for all”, in the belief that traveling, especially in the form of slow and sustainable mobility, is a life resource that must be accessible to all, without discrimination, beginning from our territories.


slow lake comoThere is even a tour company called Slow Lake Como that incorporates all ‘slow’ principles into the tours they organise. For example, they promote visits to some of the smaller less frequented but genuinely interesting villages on the lake like Brienno with its amazing labyrinth of alleys and fishermen’s houses. This Spring they have also organised a visit to Dongo to explore the sites and stories surrounding the capture of Mussolini as he tried to make his escape up the west side of our lake in April 1945 (see our article on this). They go off the standard tourist routes to explore aspects that give a genuine insight into the area, its history and people.

In their words:

In a world where distances are erased, a true adventure is going deeply into the discovery of the true essence and distinct features of a land, experiencing with all senses extraordinary activities while being accompanied by tour guides who are first place story tellers.

This is Slow Como Lake. The initiative born thanks to the passion and enthusiasm of people united by the fusion of a “slow” way of life and the love for Lake Como and aims at the valorisation of its historical, cultural, gastronomic and environmental heritage.


Looking out on to Lake Como from the portico below the fishermen’s houses in Rezzonico – one of the many delightful locations to discover when you stray from the popular path.

Maybe the best way to engage with a community is through meeting with its inhabitants. This is the principle behind Vincenzo Pandico’s Lake Como Explore – a tour business that allows you to ‘explore Lake Como through people’s experiences – a wonderful journey made by tales and pictures’. Slow Lake Como also organises cookery classes with locals – what better way to get to understand an area than through its cuisine. Specialist tours like Lake Como Food Tours  allow small groups to get an intimate insight into the culinary traditions of the lake. Any form of physical activity breaks down barriers and introduces you to the inhabitants of the area – all walkers greet each other up on the mountain paths. Many Italians are keen cyclists and all have respect for anyone prepared to take on any of the challenging hill climbs in the Lario Triangle such as the Muro di Sormano.


Maybe above all else, the ‘slow’ tourist needs information which fortunately the Internet now offers in abundance. Como Companion tries to pass on information of interest to both residents and visitors alike and provide some useful links. Lake Como has the infrastructure to support slow tourism – accommodation options that range from mountain-top huts for hikers, hostels, standard hotels or those specialised for walkers or cyclists, luxury villas etc. Use our site to view the different transport options as well as to kickstart your Internet research.

Slow down

Time to relax

Slow tourism also aims to be sustainable in the sense that it seeks to support and maintain those factors that attract visitors and delight residents for the pleasure of all both now and in the future. In this respect it’s great to note that Lake Como is now perhaps one of the first overall tourist locations with a network of recharging posts established for electric cars. Awe Magazine in an article from June 2017 describes the initiative thus:

 Italy’s breathtaking Lake Como has become the first “electric” destination in Europe thanks to a pioneering new initiative designed to reduce pollution and facilitate the easy use of electric cars, bikes and boats for the first time. Como-The Electric Lake is the brainchild of British business woman Judith Wade.

Launched this summer (2017) by Italy’s largest historic gardens and destinations network, Grandi Giardini Italiani (GGI), the initiative covers 170kms around Lake Como and is the first in Europe to create a widespread infrastructure of 19 charging points for electric cars, boats and bikes in one location. Lake Como is the birthplace of Alessandro Volta, a physicist and nobleman who invented the first electric battery over 200 years ago – making it the ideal location for this eco-enterprise.’

So come to Lake Como where, as you can see,  there is no excuse for not going slow!

Taking time to stop and stare

Taking time to stop and stare

Posted in Culture, Food, History, Itineraries, Lake, Sustainability, Uncategorized, Walks | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment